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close this bookManagement of Latin American River Basins: Amazon, Plata, and São Francisco (UNU, 1999, 338 pages)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentPreface
close this folderPart I: The Amazon river basin
View the document1. Sustainable water-resources development of the Amazon basin
View the document2. The Amazon policy of Colombia
View the document3. The Amazon Cooperation Treaty: A mechanism for cooperation and sustainable development
close this folderPart II: The Plata river basin
View the document4. The hydrology of the Upper Paraguay basin
View the document5. Water-resources management of the Plata basin
View the document6. Environmental management issues in the Plata basin
View the document7. The Plata basin institutional framework
close this folderPart III: The São Francisco river basin
View the document8. The Rio São Francisco: Lifeline of the north-east
View the document9. Policies for water-resources planning and management of the São Francisco river basin
View the document10. Addressing global environment issues through a comprehensive approach to water-resources management: Perspectives from the São Francisco and Plata basins
View the documentContributors
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3. The Amazon Cooperation Treaty: A mechanism for cooperation and sustainable development

Manuel Picasso Botto

Introduction

The main purpose of this document is to give an overview of the institutional scope and programmes of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty executed on 3 July 1978 in the city of Brasília by the Republics of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, and Venezuela.

For reference purposes, we will begin by explaining certain unique characteristics of the Amazon river and the Amazon basin, followed by the goals and objects of the treaty and the corresponding treaty bodies, closing with a summary of the major on-going programmes and projects within the frame of this international instrument.

Unique characteristics of the Amazon river and the Amazon basin1

- The Amazon region is known as the largest wet tropical forest. Its flora and fauna, including numerous plants and animals still unknown to science, make up more than 50 per cent of the global biota. It is estimated that over 56 per cent of the tropical forests of planet earth are found in the Amazon basin.

- The Amazon river, which runs through 6,762 km from its source in the snow-capped mountain of Mismi, in the department of Arequipa (southern Peru), is also the longest, largest, widest, and deepest river, and drains the largest basin in the world.

- The Amazon river discharges into the Atlantic ocean between 200,000 and 220,000 cubic metres of water per second, between 6.3 and 6.9 billion cubic metres per year, representing 15.47 per cent of all fresh water in the world. It also discharges approximately 1 billion metric tons of sediments per year.

- In the Obidos strait (Brazil), the Amazon reaches an approximate depth of 300 m, permitting access by large-draft vessels to Iquitos more than 2,300 km up river.

- The slope is very uneven in the upper basin, where it varies approximately 5,000 m along a straight course of 50 km. In the mid-lower stretch the gradient is less steep: from Iquitos (Peru) to its mouth the Amazon flows through 2,375 km with a gradient of only 4.5 cm per km.

- The width of the Amazon varies. During the rainy season, in some stretches the waters of the Amazon flood 20-50 km on both margins.

- The river bed extends over nearly 7,165,281 sq km. It accounts for 1.40 per cent of the total surface of the earth, 4.82 per cent of the continental surface, and 40.18 per cent of South America.

- The Amazon basin has very heterogeneous geographical and ecological characteristics, comprising territories located between 6,000 m.a.s.l. (the Andes mountains) and sea level. The lower basin is an immense biome of forests and waters. It is estimated that nearly 30 per cent of this region is formed by water and wet areas: rivers of diverse characteristics, lagoons, ponds, swamps, marshes, and flood-prone areas.

- The Amazon region provides undeniable global environmental services, such as control of the greenhouse effect, preservation of the hydric equilibrium of the atmosphere, circulation of nutrients, and conservation of biological, scientific, and cultural diversity.

- The Amazon is not an empty territory, although throughout most of the region the population density is low and nearly 60 per cent of it is urban. At present, in the lower areas there live approximately 22 million people assembled in native villages, modern forest populations engaged in extraction activities; and other populations, such as the Amazon population, grow at an annual rate of 3 per cent. There are nearly 379 ethnic groups, with a millenial tradition of adaptation to the heterogeneous conditions of the region and depositories of an incalculable wealth of knowledge and technologies.

Objects and bodies of the treaty

The implementation of joint efforts and actions to promote the harmonious development of the respective Amazonian territories, in a way that permits environmental protection and the rational use of the natural resources from those territories, is one of the main objects of the treaty. To this end, the governments undertake to exchange information and to execute agreements and operational arrangements, as well as the relevant legal instruments.

Other objects of the treaty include the promotion of the harmonious development of the Amazon region, understood as the equilibrium between economic growth and preservation of the environment, improving at the same time the living conditions of the peoples of the region.

The treaty assigns special importance as well to actions aimed at the full incorporation of Amazonian territories to the national economies, rational utilization of water resources; improvement of navigable waterways, and the importance of establishing the adequate physical infrastructure between the member countries, especially in the areas of transportation and communications.

Improvement of the health conditions of the Amazonian population, as well as prevention and control of epidemics, close collaboration in scientific and technological areas, development of tourism without detriment to native cultures, sustainable use of natural resources, and conservation of regional, ethnological, and archeological resources are other goals that deserve special treatment. The scope of application of this sub-regional cooperation instrument is the Amazon basin and adjacent territories with very similar characteristics.

The treaty encompasses the following bodies:

(i) The meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs is the highest body. It establishes the basic common policy guidelines, supervises and evaluates the general conduct of this cooperation process.

(ii) The Amazon Cooperation Council is formed by high-level diplomatic representatives of the contracting parties. It is responsible for supervising compliance with the goals and provisions of the treaty, and takes decisions on the performance of bilateral or multilateral studies and projects.

(iii) The Permanent National Commissions of each member country are responsible for the implementation in their respective territories of the provisions of the treaty, as well as of the decisions taken by the meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Amazon Cooperation Council.

(iv) The treaty's Secretariat is assigned, on a rotary basis, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of one of the member countries to carry out the activities specified in the treaty and those ordered by the meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Amazon Cooperation Council. It is also responsible for actions relating to international technical and financial cooperation.

(v) The Special Commissions of the Amazon region, devoted to the study of specific problems or subjects, are formed by entities designated by the member countries, responsible for the coordination, follow-up, and correct implementation in their respective countries of the approved programmes and projects and for the submission of new proposals of common interest to permit compliance with the actions specified in the treaty.

The Organizational Chart of the treaty is set forth in annex 1.

Meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs

Pursuant to Article XX of the treaty, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the contracting parties shall meet whenever deemed convenient or appropriate, to establish basic common policy guidelines, consider and evaluate the general course of the Amazon cooperation process and take decisions for the achievement of the goals proposed therein. These meetings are held at the initiative of any of the parties, supported by at least four other member states.

The general policies that guide the course of the treaty from the time that it was signed are therefore based on the directives issued by the five meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the member countries held thus far.2

The documents from the past five meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the treaty are: the Belem Declaration, signed at Belém do Pará, Brazil, on 24 October 1980; the Santiago de Cali Declaration signed at Cali, Colombia, on 8 December 1983; the San Francisco de Quito Declaration, signed at Quito, Ecuador, on 7 March 1989; the Santa Cruz de la Sierra Declaration, signed at Santa Cruz, Bolivia, on 8 November 1991, and the Lima Declaration signed at Lima, Peru, on 5 December 1995.

Upon the signing of the Lima Declaration, at the close of the Fifth Meeting of Foreign Affairs held at the initiative of the Government of Peru, it may be affirmed that the treaty entered a new promising consolidation phase: the decision to create a Permanent Secretariat and a new Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Education; the design for establishing a financial mechanism and an institutional network for research and protection of genetic resources, and the decision to negotiate an agreement on measures to prevent and control the contamination of water resources and its damaging effects have reshaped the institutional framework and enabled its prompt consolidation, lending even more vitality, cohesion, and continuity to this instrument, which has already acquired an internationally recognized profile and identity.

At this meeting, the first since the World Conference on the Environment and Development held at Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the ministers also discussed important topics and aspects relating to the Amazon forest, water resources, biological diversity, native peoples, environmental education, and hydrobiological resources, among other subjects.

The Amazon Cooperation Council

Pursuant to Article XXI, high-level diplomatic representatives from the Contracting Parties will meet annually as members of the Amazon Cooperation Council. The Council has the following responsibilities:

(i) supervises compliance with the objects and goals of the treaty;

(ii) supervises compliance with the decisions taken by the meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs;

(iii) issues recommendations to the parties on the convenience or timeliness to hold meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and prepares the respective agendas;

(iv) considers the initiatives and projects submitted by the parties and takes the relevant decisions for the performance of bilateral/multilateral studies and projects, to be implemented, as appropriate, by the Permanent National Commissions;

(v) evaluates the performance of projects of bilateral/multilateral interest.

Formally, council members may hold ordinary and special meetings, both of which must be convened by the Pro Tempore Secretary. The delegations must be headed by a high-level diplomat from each member country and composed of delegates, advisors, and other members accredited by the governments.

Until now, the Amazon Cooperation Council has met on seven occasions: in Lima, Peru, in July 1983; in La Paz, Bolivia, in September 1986; in Brasilia, Brazil, in March 1988; in Bogota, Colombia, in May 1990; in Quito, Ecuador, in July 1993; in Lima, Peru, in October 1994; and again in Lima, Peru, in November 1995. The eighth meeting took place in Caracas, Venezuela, during the first part of 1997.

Special Commissions of the Amazon region

Pursuant to Article XXIV of the treaty, seven Special Commissions of the Amazon region have been established for the study of the following specific problems and subjects: the environment; science and technology; transportation, communications and infrastructure; health; native affairs; tourism; and education. These Special Commissions are formed by the competent national institutions within each sector, linked into an active sub-regional communications network.

Special Commission on Science and Technology (CECTA)

CECTA was established during the Third Meeting of the Amazon Cooperation Council (Brasília, March 1988). Its purpose is to encourage and supervise the performance of regional projects and other activities undertaken by the member countries of ACT in the fields of science and technology; to act as a mechanism for obtaining funds from international sources and to coordinate the application of those funds in regional projects. CECTA has met on five occasions, the last two meetings were held in Lima in 1995 and Iquitos in 1996.

Special Commission on the Environment (CEMAA)

This Commission was established during the Third Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of ACT (Quito, March 1989), to carry through the common goals of environmental protection and rational use of the many and varied natural resources of the Amazon. The Commission has met on five occasions; its last two Annual Meetings were held in Lima in 1995 and in Santafe de Bogota in 1996.

Special Commission on Native Affairs (CEAIA)

CEAIA was established during the Third Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of ACT (March 1989), for the purpose of giving way to the national interest in native affairs, in accordance with the following guidelines:

(i) to promote the strengthening of the ethnic identity and conservation of the historical and cultural heritage of native peoples, especially of their lands and resources;

(ii) to promote the exchange of information between the various bodies, institutes, and/or institutions responsible in each of the Amazonian countries for the design and implementation of national policies on native peoples, with the purpose of enhancing mutual knowledge on the native peoples of the region;

(iii) to foster technical cooperation programmes incorporated in the policies of member countries on native populations; and

(iv) to carry out programmes and projects of common interest in areas such as the conservation, management, and use of natural resources in native territories, the rescue and development of native technologies, community development, human resources training, etc.

This Special Commission has met four times; its last meeting was held in Lima in 1995.

Special Commission on Health (CESAM)

CESAM was created in March 1988 as a sectoral coordinating body within the Health area, during the Third Meeting of the Amazon Cooperation Council, with the following objects:

(i) encouraging, coordinating and supervising the implementation of regional programmes and other activities undertaken in the health area by the countries parties to the Amazon Treaty; and

(ii) acting as a mechanism to obtain international resources from international cooperation and coordinating the application of those resources in regional programmes.

CESAM has met on four occasions; its last meeting was held in Lima in June 1995.

Special Commission on Transportation, Infrastructure and Communications (CETICAM)

The Fourth Meeting of the Amazon Cooperation Council (Santafe de Bogota, May 1990) established the Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Transportation (CETRAM). Later, its mandate was expanded by the Fourth Meeting of Foreign Affairs of ACT held at Santa Cruz de la Sierra Bolivia, in November 1991, to cover communications and infrastructure, and its name was changed to Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Transportation, Infrastructure and Communications (CETICAM).

Generally, the programmes and projects of this Special Commission are designed to establish strategies for the enhancement of different modes of transportation; prepare general plans and projects on transportation along the Amazon river to develop commerce and contribute to regional prosperity; promote the establishment of a ground transportation system (by road and rail); and encourage regional air transport; facilitate telecommunications; carry out pre-feasibility and feasibility studies on major inter-oceanic corridors; and identify alternative intermodal connections between the basins of the Amazon, Orinoco, and Plata rivers.

The assessment of environmental impact of projects in the Amazon, particularly of projects relating to transportation infrastructure, has become at present a fundamental training component for the members of this Special Commission.

Special Commission on Tourism (CETURA)

CETURA was created during the Fourth Meeting of the Amazon Cooperation Council (Bogota, May 1990). Its main responsibilities are the following:

(i) to promote training and organization of human resources and carry out market surveys on aspects related to tourism;

(ii) to promote the organization of meetings, fairs, and other activities to encourage ecological tourism in the Amazon;

(iii) to identify the effects of tourist-related activities upon natural resources and native communities, taking into account the particular environmental and cultural characteristics of the Amazon to incorporate them in the planning and development of projects;

(iv) to stimulate the complementary development of the special characteristics of each tourist site in the Amazon;

(v) to promote the exchange of experiences, research, and studies on different areas of tourism in connection with investments, credit lines, etc. in the member countries; and

(vi) to encourage cooperation between national, regional, public, and private institutions engaged in tourism-related activities, in accordance with the general goals of the treaty.

This Commission has met on three occasions; it held its third annual meeting in Lima, in June 1995.

Special Commission on Education (CEEDA)

Two decisions concerning education were taken at the Fifth Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty: the Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Education (CEEDA) was created as a mechanism to evaluate experiences and coordinate the design of educational plans adapted to Amazonian circumstances, and to promote the training and organization of human resources in the Amazon region, as well as respect for the cultural identity of its peoples. It was also resolved to design a common programme to promote environmental education and awareness at school level. To this end this Special Commission was required to organize a regional seminar to propose the guidelines, contents, and scope of manuals for this purpose.

Through the creation of this Special Commission, the governments implemented a tool to permit the inhabitants of the Amazon basin to benefit from educational programmes and projects adapted to their needs, and to participate in forging their economic potential and environmental conservation.

The First Ordinary Annual Meeting of this Special Commission, as well as the Regional Seminar on the Preparation of Manuals on the Common Program on Promotion of Environmental Education and Awareness at School Level will take place in 1997, in accordance with the schedule of pending activities.

Pro Tempore Secretariat of ACT

The Pro Tempore Secretariat is responsible for carrying out the activities mandated by the Treaty, the Meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Amazon Cooperation Council. It acts as a catalyst and promoter of efforts throughout the region, dynamizing the exchange of experiences, spreading scientific or technical information, and encouraging the formulation and implementation of regional projects. To this end, the Secretariat formulates and receives proposals; organizes and convenes seminars and workshops on specific topics; edits dissemination bulletins and publications; prepares projects to enhance knowledge about the region; promotes sustainable development in the Amazon; favours the conservation of biological diversity, and supports training for local populations.

The regulations of the Secretariat define its duties and responsibilities, namely:

(i) to supervise compliance with the goals and objects of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty;

(ii) to comply and supervise compliance with the resolutions adopted by the Meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Amazon Cooperation Council;

(iii) to coordinate with the competent authorities and bodies of the Amazonian countries details for the holding of meetings of formal and technical treaty bodies, to disseminate their results, and follow up the decisions taken thereby.

(iv) to prepare, compile, and store the official correspondence of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty, which will be transferred at the time of making the corresponding rotation (duties are exercised on a rotary basis);

(v) to keep the Permanent National Commissions of the treaty duly informed of the progress made by the various Special Commissions and the meetings and other activities of the Amazon cooperation process. The official communications between the Secretariat and the parties on the convening of technical meetings or meetings of the Special Commissions regarding substantive aspects of programmes, projects, and international cooperation are transmitted by diplomatic channels. The Pro Tempore Secretariat takes care that the Special Commissions observe the same procedure;

(vi) it is charged, in accordance with the mandates of the Meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, the Council and the Special Commissions, with the tasks of management, promotion, preparation of documents required for the financial negotiations, follow-up, and all that refers to the obtainment of resources for the financing of programmes and projects, as well as with the timely and efficient implementation and start-up of these programmes and projects. The projects, which may arise from initiatives of the Special Commissions or the Pro Tempore Secretariat, are submitted to all the parties for consideration by them, and their implementation is subject to prior and express approval of each of the concerned parties. The non concerned parties may present observations within a maximum term of 60 days.

(vii) to apply for, arrange and submit proposals for technical, scientific, and financial cooperation for the approval of the member countries;

(viii) to follow-up and make a general evaluation of on-going programmes and projects, and take appropriate measures for their timely and efficient implementation;

(ix) to protect and update all the documents concerning progress made in implementation of the treaty, bilateral agreements on Amazonian cooperation, and related instruments;

(x) to disseminate information continuously on the cooperation process, for the purpose of attracting positive attention from international organizations, other countries, and public and private organizations;

(xi) to prepare, in coordination with the Ad Hoc Consultative Committee and regional coordinating bodies of the Special Commissions, an annual workplan including the proposals for operational research plans and implementation of specific programmes and projects. The Secretariat must submit for approval annually the Work Schedule of the Special Commissions to the parties, and strive to hold meetings of all the Commissions prior to the Meeting of the Council in order that the latter may perform an adequate follow-up of their activities;

(xii) to submit detailed reports biannually and at the end of its period of office;

(xiii) to coordinate the activities of the Special Commissions of the Amazon Region with the respective Executive Secretariats;

(xiv) to convene, at the request of any of the member countries, the necessary technical meetings for coordinating the actions of the various bilateral and multilateral mechanisms of the treaty, and to deliver to the Amazon Cooperation Council reports on the results achieved, for the purpose of facilitating the evaluation of the Amazon cooperation process;

(xv) other duties and responsibilities that may be assigned to the Secretariat by the Meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Amazon Cooperation Council.

The duties of the Pro Tempore Secretariat are exercised on a rotary basis by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of the Countries Parties to the Amazon Cooperation Treaty. The respective Ministry of Foreign Affairs designates a high-level diplomatic officer to act as Pro Tempore Secretariat, supported by a team of diplomatic officers devoted full-time to this task.

Since the treaty was signed, the duties of the Secretariat have been exercised by the following countries: Peru, from October 1980 to July 1983; Bolivia, from July 1983 to September 1986; Brazil, from September 1986 to March 1988; Colombia, from March 1988 to May 1990; Ecuador, from May 1990 to January 1994; and Peru, since February 1994. This responsibility will shortly be transferred to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Venezuela.

The Pro Tempore Secretariat is assisted by the Ad Hoc Consultative Committee, composed of the Ambassadors of the governments of the parties accredited before the country in charge of the Secretariat. It is the duty of the Secretariat to exchange information and coordinate the actions relating to the Amazon cooperation process with this committee.

Specialists in each specific area of concern of the Special Commissions work at the Secretariat's headquarters and act as regional coordinators. It is their responsibility to promote regional projects; to implement actions that facilitate the process of exchange of information, to prepare technical documents, to update regional data banks, and to establish the necessary contacts for wider participation of institutions and experts at seminars, workshops, and meetings.

In recent years, the Secretariat has promoted a vigorous institutional mobilization of entities and sectors responsible for the policies and actions of the member countries in the Amazon region, reflected in a substantial growth of participation in the cooperation process that has benefited the treaty. The Secretariat has acted as a catalyst in coordinating the adoption of a common stand by the countries parties to the ACT at international fora devoted to the discussion of matters of interest to the parties. Likewise, the Secretariat has formulated several projects of regional scope involving a total investment of more than US$25m, with the support of prominent bodies of the United Nations, for some of which the financing arrangements are at an advanced stage.

The organizational chart of the Secretariat during the tenure of office of Peru is attached as annex 2.

Workplan

The Secretariat's workplan, approved by the Foreign Ministers at their Fifth Meeting, contains programmes, projects, and activities oriented at and designed for achieving the goals of the treaty, especially with reference to improving the quality of life of the population.

In accordance with the policy guidelines issued by the Meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Amazon Cooperation Council, the workplan points at the adoption and application by the member countries of policies and strategies for sustainable development based on previously identified and common needs, prospects, and priorities.

(a) In the political and institutional areas, the workplan aims, among other things, to achieve the following objectives:

(i) to contribute to the reinforcement of the treaty's institutional base in each member country, supporting the action of the Permanent National Commissions;

(ii) to adopt clear mechanisms for the management of the Secretariat, so as to permit a fluid exchange and communication with the parties and to ensure due performance of its duties;

(iii) to strengthen the work of the Special Commissions of the Amazon region;

(iv) to foster the exchange of views between the member countries for the adoption of common positions at various international fora on matters relating to the treaty, and to achieve closer relations with different sub-regional bodies and mechanisms for the treatment of matters of common interest;

(v) to promote the adoption of agreements on specific subjects for the preservation of the environment;

(vi) to promote coordinating action between the political-diplomatic bodies of the treaty through the Special Commissions of the Amazon Region in the process of formulation of projects.

(b) In the technical area:

(i) to strive for the joint preparation of projects with a regional focus;

(ii) to lay down criteria for the identification and selection of projects, as well as follow-up mechanisms;

(iii) to evaluate the potential and limitations of previously identified projects, and to determine their priority level in terms of the common needs of the member countries.

This workplan is translated into specific items in the Operational Plans of each of the Special Commissions of the Amazon Region, which generally respond to the following objectives:

- In the areas of science and technology, to contribute to the development of regional policies and strategies based on those laid down by the countries parties to ACT, for the consolidation of science and indigenous technologies conducive to viable alternatives for the sustainable development of the Amazon region.

- Within the scope of action of the Special Commission on the Environment, to develop and implement environmental protection strategies, through the adequate management of natural resources, to permit an ecological equilibrium that guarantees the sustainable development of the Amazon region; and to encourage research on and dissemination of the efficient use of Amazonian biodiversity for the sustainable development of the region, promoting the exchange of experiences on the natural productivity of ecosystems, species, and genetic resources;

- on the subject of native affairs, to promote the adequate treatment of the problems of native populations of the Amazon, striving to safeguard and re-evaluate their ethnical and cultural heritage and ensure the protection of their lands;

- in the areas of transportation, communications and infrastructure, to have the member countries adopt and apply coordinated policies and strategies environmentally compatible with the goals of sustainable development of the Amazon region; and to incorporate the Amazonian territories to the economic activities of their respective countries, as well as to the integration efforts promoted through bilateral and multilateral actions in the context of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty;

- in the area of tourism, to strive towards the establishment of a common policy in the member countries for attracting tourism to the Amazon region without affecting the environment and the native populations, and to incorporate those populations insofar as possible into the activities to be implemented;

- in the area of health, to contribute to the improvement of the health conditions of the populations of the Amazon, with special emphasis on native communities, by strengthening primary health care programmes to provide adequate health services to Amazon populations, attending to the characteristics of the Amazon tropical climate and to the cultural heterogeneity of the Amazonian population, in terms of specialized health and nutritional services.

The programmes, projects, and technical activities are carried out through the Special Commissions and Permanent National Commissions. The Pro Tempore Secretariat is in charge of the follow-up and general evaluation of on-going programmes and projects and takes the necessary actions for their prompt and efficient execution.

Eight programmes have been identified within the scope of the Special Commissions, and each member country has been assigned regional cooperation responsibilities. In the specific case of the programmes of CEAIA, there are only seven; the programmes of CETURA are coordinated region-wide by the Secretariat. Those programmes are classified according to topics and comprise related projects and activities. A table detailing the various programmes is included as Annex 3 below.

With regard to the scope of the projects, the aim is to encourage the use of human resources and infrastructure existing in each country, and to implement projects of wide scope and high cost in stages to facilitate their financing. Another aim is to combine activities with training and educational components, dissemination of information, experiences, research, and studies.

Many of these activities are developed with funds from non reimbursable international cooperation. The member countries have yet to make regular contributions of their assigned regular quotas, although they do contribute human and financial resources for the implementation of national activities; each government acting as seat of the Pro Tempore Secretariat assigns funds for the installation and operation of the Secretariat.

The international cooperation provided by organizations and governments allows the treaty to carry out projects, especially in relation with the identification of potentials and natural resources management. It also supports the activities of the Pro Tempore Secretariat and the Special Commissions, permitting the exchange of experiences and holding of meetings, and translation in many cases of various national initiatives into regional projects. This process has activated and stimulated the work of the government institutions and sectors that make up the Permanent National Commissions of ACT and facilitates smooth and mutual inter-institutional relations between the parties.

Various international organizations have been providing support for the treaty in the form of non reimbursable multilateral assistance, namely: the European Union, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), with funds from the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), with funds from the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO); the Organization of American States (OAS), the Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) (Andean Development Corporation), among others. The Governments of Finland and Canada have recently joined this flow of cooperation.

The Pro Tempore Secretariat has established similar links with prominent institutions through the signing of memoranda of understanding with the United Nations Environmental Programme, the Asociacion de Universidades Amazonicas (UNAMAZ) (Association of Amazonian Universities), the World Resources Institute (WRI), among others.

Principal ongoing programmes and projects

Within the frame of CEMAA

The Regional Strategies Project for Sustainable Conservation and Management of Natural Resources in the Amazon comprises three projects: "Zonificacion Ecologica y Monitoreo Geografico en el Amazonas" (ecologic zoning and geographic monitoring of the Amazon); "Capacitacion en el Aprovechamiento Sustentable de la Biodiversidad Amazonica" (training in sustainable uses of Amazonian biodiversity); and "Manejo de Recursos Naturales en Territorios Indigenas de la Amazonia" (natural resources management in native Amazonian territories). Their implementation is financed by UNDP-GEF, to contribute to the ordering of the territory as well as to the study, formulation of strategies, and evaluation of Amazonian biodiversity.

The Program on Ecologic Zoning and Geographic Monitoring of the Amazon, funded by IDB, covers two sub-programs: Technical Assistance for the Permanent National Commissions of the Amazon Cooperation Council and Assistance for the Harmonization of Geographical Information Systems (GIS). This last sub-programme complements the zoning project, which began with funds furnished by UNDP, aimed at harmonizing the methodological proposals of the aforementioned projects.

The projects on ecologic zoning and geographical monitoring of the Amazon aim to have the countries parties to ACT adopt and apply ecologic-economic zoning principles in the formulation of policies and strategies for ordering their territories, as basic tools and decision-making criteria, to contribute thus to the sustainable development of the Amazon region, the strengthening of national zoning institutions, and the identification of alternatives for harmonizing the hardware and software installed in the ACT member countries to make their national geographical information systems mutually complementary.

The Regional Project on Planning and Management of Protected Areas in the Amazon Region is funded with resources from the European Union and its purpose is to ensure the conservation of natural and cultural biodiversity by consolidating selected pilot areas and demonstration centres and establishing protected areas in the Amazon. This project also oversees, among other activities, the design of management plans for ecotourism. It is important to highlight, in this regard, that given the successful results obtained thus far in implementation, the parties have agreed to carry out the second stage of the project.

The following projects and research activities are being carried out with funds provided by FAO: Food Security, Nutrition and Natural Resources of the Amazon; Biodiversity and Food in the Amazon; Recovery of Native Foods; Nutritional Alternatives; Propagation of Promising Plant and Vegetable Species in the Amazon Region; Small Agrobusiness as a Factor of Sustainable Development in the Amazon Region; Sustainable Use and Conservation of Wild Fauna in the Countries of the Amazon Basin; Pilot Project on Management of Podoenemis Expansa; Forests, Trees and Rural Communities; Identification of Criteria and Indicators of Sustainability for the Amazon Forest, etc. These projects refer mainly to the knowledge, management, and evaluation of natural resources.

Finally, technical assistance from UNIDO is being used to carry out the project "Strategy for Environmental Quality Management in Three Member States of ACT: Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru," aimed at laying down policies for incorporating environmental and industrial factors into developmental actions undertaken in the Amazon region.

Within the frame of CETICAM

In accordance with the treaty provisions on the convenience of creating an adequate physical infrastructure between the member countries, especially in the areas of transportation and communications, member countries are developing the project "Transportation Network for the Amazon Region," as a basic planning tool and physical space for the implementation of regional transportation policies, environmentally compatible with the goals of Sustainable development for the Amazon region, and as a general framework for the development of various projects stemming from the integration needs of the region.

The first stage of this project foresees the formulation of a proposal on an Intermodal International Transportation Network for the Amazon Region, supportive of and environmentally compatible with the goals on sustainable development advanced for the region, and contributing to:

(i) the integration efforts of the member parties, promoted through actions performed within the framework of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty;

(ii) the full incorporation of their Amazonian territories into the scope of activities of their respective national economies; and

(iii) generation of a physical infrastructure compatible with the aspirations of the inhabitants of the Amazon region and the access needs of isolated population centres.

This first stage of this project has been funded by the European Union and implemented by the Empresa Brasileña de Planeamiento de Transportes (GEIPOT) (Brazilian Transportation Planning Enterprise).

The studies for the formulation of this proposal have been completed and the working draft was approved by the representatives of the member countries during a technical workshop organized by the Pro Tempore Secretariat and held in Caracas 3-6 December 1996.

The final version of the network, including specific information provided by the governments of the parties, is being prepared and will be circulated. The Fourth Ordinary Meeting of CETICAM held at Caracas approved this proposal.

Within the frame of CECTA

Funds provided by the World Bank's Economic Development Institute (EDI), the Government of the Netherlands, FAO, and UNDP are being used to carry out the project "Dissemination of Sustainable Technologies for the Use of Amazonian Biodiversity," and to publish important and widely disseminated technical documents within the frame of this project, such as: Diagnostico de los recursos hidrobiologicos de la Amazonia (diagnosis of hydrobiological resources of the Amazon); Experiencias agroforestales exitosas en la Amazonia (successful agroforest experiences in the Amazon); Recursos fitogenéticos de cultivos alimenticios y frutales amazónicos (phytogenetic resources of Amazonian food crops and fruits); Plantas medicinales de la Amazonia: realidad y perspectivas (Amazonian medicinal plants: reality and prospects); Biodiversidad y salud en las poblaciones indigenas de la Amazonia (biodiversity and health among Amazonian native populations); Uso y conservación de la fauna silvestre en la Amazonia (use and conservation of Amazonian wild fauna); Patentes, propiedad intelectual y biodiversidad amazonica (patents, intellectual property and Amazonian biodiversity); and Cultivo del pijuayo para palmito en la Amazonia (production of "pijuayo" for palmetto in the Amazon).

The document "Frutas y hortalizas promisorias de la Amazonia" (promising Amazonian fruits and vegetables) was recently published with technical and financial support from FAO. This work describes 52 plant species, and constitutes a valuable contribution for the study and knowledge of a series of plant products with economic and social potential by public and private institutions, researchers, technicians, and persons interested in the Amazon region and its incorporation to the local, national, and regional economies.

Within the frame of CEAIA

The project entitled "Programa Regional de Consolidacion de Territorios Indigenas a traves del Tratado de Cooperacion Amazonica" (Regional Program for the Consolidation of Native Territories through the Amazon Cooperation Treaty) was implemented with technical and financial support from the European Union, with the general aim of assisting certain Amazonian native communities of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru in the process of surveyance and legalization of the lands inhabited by them, and laying down conditions that may permit those communities to manage, preserve, and make rational use of the natural resources stored therein.

A regional diagnosis was prepared under this project and guidelines were issued on native lands, embodied in the recent publication of the Secretariat entitled "Tierras y aguas indigenas de la Amazonia: una experiencia regional" (native lands and waters of the Amazon: a regional experience).

The parties to the treaty commissioned the Secretariat, at the Fourth Ordinary Meeting of CEAIA held in Lima in May 1995, to formulate a new regional project for promoting regional support for processes of recognition and protection of native lands and waters in the Amazon, and for the sustainable management of biological resources. In this context, the Secretariat, in coordination with the national entities responsible for native affairs in each of the member countries, identified the respective national proposals and prepared a basic proposal for a regional project entitled "Programa Regional de manejo sostenible de recursos naturales en areas indigenas de la Amazonia" (Regional programme for sustainable management of natural resources in native areas of the Amazon), which was submitted to the parties for consideration.

Bearing in mind that efforts for the systematization of information on native Amazonian populations within the frame of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty are still incipient, the Pro Tempore Secretariat through the Coordination of the Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Native Affairs (CEAIA) proposed at the Fourth Ordinary Meeting of CEAIA to include the subject of native affairs within the system of SIAMAZ and not to establish a separate information subsystem. Based on this perspective, scattered public information is being collected and will shortly be presented in CD-ROM format.

Within the frame of CESAM

The process of formulation and consultation of the regional project "Promocion de la Salud en las Poblaciones de la Region Amazonica" (Health promotion among Amazonian populations) is being completed, involving financial aid from the European Union for the amount of US$1,821,396 and contributions from the concerned countries equivalent to US$1,278,089. The main object of this project is to reinforce community health services in the Amazon region through the development of a regional programme of training, technical assistance, and exchange of national experiences in health promotion in the Amazon.

The specific goals of this project should lead to the establishment of a pilot regional health programme designed to strengthen and foster cooperation in the area of health, and to raise the levels of capacity and management of health personnel, among other objectives.

Within the frame of CETURA

During the Fifth Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, the Secretariat was commissioned to formulate, in consultation with the parties, the Master Development Plan on Tourism and Ecotourism for the Amazon Region, as an instrument for promoting regional development and investments in tourism in the Amazon, with the support and active participation of public and private sectors engaged in tourism, environmental, and native affairs of the member countries.

The plan is being formulated on the basis of the regional project "Promicion del Desarrollo del Ecoturismo en la Region Amazonica" (Development of ecotourism in the Amazon region), designed during the Third Ordinary Meeting of CETURA held in Lima in June 1995, and the regional workshop that preceded it. The objective of this new proposal is to cover not only ecotourism, but also sustainable tourism as an activity that subsumes ecotourism.

Both the master plan and the regional project will be examined by the authorized representatives of the member countries at the Fourth Meeting of CETURA to be held in the city of Manaos.

Within the frame of CEEDA

The activities to be carried out by this Special Commission are the holding of its First Ordinary Meeting and the preparation, in accordance with the commission received from the Fifth Meeting of Foreign Affairs Ministers, of a common programme for the promotion of environmental education and awareness at school level, and, to this end, the organization and convening of a regional seminar to propose the main lines, contents, and scope of manuals.

Scheduled activities

The workplan of the Pro Tempore Secretariat includes, among other things, development of the following activities:

(i) to design plans and strategies for soil conservation and improvement in the region, adequate soil use and management, and promotion of new productive activities based on native species of flora, fauna, and micro-organisms;

(ii) to implement a programme for environmental education and awareness at school level, and to begin with book production for this purpose;

(iii) to negotiate a framework agreement on actions to prevent and control the contamination of shared water resources and its negative impact on human health, the habitat, and biological diversity as a whole;

(iv) the future negotiations of the Amazonian countries shall take into consideration the unique characteristics of the region. For this purpose, it may be necessary to evaluate the methods applied in other river basins, as in the basins of the Mekong, Senegal, Plata, and Rhine rivers. It will also be important to have available updated studies on the problem of contamination levels in the Amazon basin;

(v) to analyse and adopt systems for the registration of Amazonian genetic resources, and rules on protection of intellectual property and similar rules on protection of traditional knowledge, as well as on access to and intellectual property of Amazonian biogenetic resources;

(vi) to implement an institutional network for the protection of and research on genetic resources;

(vii) to follow a systematic approach to lay down common rules in the member countries on the sustainable use of the Amazon forest, and, in this connection, to support the initiatives of the member countries to implement the so-called "Tarapoto process" on sustainability criteria and indicators for the Amazon forest. To this end, the Secretariat has been able to obtain funds with international cooperation and to sponsor the holding of national evaluation workshops, one already held in Colombia, and others held in Peru and Ecuador. Likewise, the following actions are underway to expand regional cooperation:

(a) To conclude the reformulation and negotiation of financing by GEF of the project provisionally entitled "Accion para una Amazonia sostenible" (Action for Amazonian sustainability), and begin its implementation.

(b) To complete the process of formulation and consultation of the following projects: "Uso sostenible y conservación de la fauna silvestre en los paises de la cuenca del Amazonas" (Sustainable use and conservation of wild fauna in the countries of the Amazon basin); "Programa regional de desarrollo y promoción del turismo sostenible y ecoturismo en la region Amazonica por intermedio de las comunidades locales" (Regional programme for development and promotion of sustainable tourism and ecotourism in the Amazon region through local communities); and begin the design of the second stage of the regional project "Planificacion y manejo de areas protegidas de la region Amazonica" (Planning and management of protected areas in the Amazon region).

(c) To continue the work of defining the scope of transportation programmes under the Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Transportation, Communications and Infrastructure (CETICAM) and of the following projects: "Estrategias para promover corredores prioritarios de transporte en la Amazonia y estrategias para su ejecucion por partes" (Strategies to promote priority transportation corridors in the Amazon and phased implementation strategies); "Red de telecomunicaciones para la region Amazonica" (Telecommunications network for the Amazon region); and "La cuenca Amazonica y su factibilidad de interconexion con las cuencas de los Rios Orinoco y de La Plata" (The Amazon basin and feasibility of its interconnection with the Orinoco and Plata river basins).

(d) To pursue the task of defining the scope of and formulating proposals for the following projects identified by the meetings of the Special Commissions, workshops, and other technical meetings: "Consolidacion, manejo y aprovechamiento de recursos naturales en areas indigenas de la Amazonia" (Consolidation, management and use of natural resources in native areas in the Amazon); "Sistemas integrales de produccion para el desarrollo agrario de la Amazonia" (Integral production systems for agricultural development in the Amazon); "Levantamiento de palmeras de la region Amazonica con potencial economico y social" (Survey of palm trees of the Amazon region with economic and social potential); "Experiencia piloto en el manejo de la fauna silvestre en los paises de la cuenca Amazonica" (Pilot experience in the management of wild fauna in the countries of the Amazon basin); "Plan regional de manejo para la conservacion y uso sostenible del caiman negro" (Regional management plan for the conservation and sustainable use of black cayman); "Recuperacion de la productividad de los suelos afectados por la agricultura y ganaderia mediante el uso de terrazas y sistemas agroforestales y silvopastoriles intensivos" (Recovering the productivity of soils damaged by agriculture and livestock production through the use of terracing and intensive agroforest and jungle grazing systems); "Plan referencial de homogenizacion de los sistemas de control epidemiologico para los paises del Tratado de Cooperacion Amazonica" (Reference plan for standardization of epidemiological control systems in the countries of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty); "Prevencion de daños producidos por la contaminacion con mercuriales" (Prevention of damage caused by mercury contamination).

Dissemination

For its dissemination activities on topics relating to development indexes in the Amazon region, the wealth of biological diversity and natural resources, the inventory of projects under the treaty, legislation in force, bibliography, publications, studies, and other data on the environment, health, science and technology, transportation, communications, native affairs, tourism, and education in the Amazon, as well as research centres in and for the region, the Secretariat has used the following means to carry out this task efficiently.

Preparation of trilingual quarterly information bulletins and their distribution to government entities of the member countries, academic and research institutions interested in the Amazon, regional or state governments, members of National Congresses or Parliaments, cooperating governments and agencies, NGOs, the media, private enterprises interested in the development of the Amazon, participants at workshops and seminars organized or sponsored by the Pro Tempore Secretariat of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty.

Likewise, a Website has been placed at the service of interested governments, researchers, and organizations within the Internet system. Through this service, the Secretariat furnishes the information contained in the 10 information bulletins published thus far. There are plans to expand this service, which will soon present its most important publications. It has also begun the task of compiling all the publications issued to date by the Secretariat in CD-ROM format.

Finally, a significant number of publications has been issued by the Secretariat - the complete list is set forth in annex 4 - dealing with subjects of interest to the treaty. There is a prior mechanism of coordination and consultation for all publications in which all member countries participate, allowing adequate time for the parties to comment on the contents of the proposed publications.

Conclusions

It may be affirmed today that the treaty has a joint work programme in specific areas that involves the participation of increasingly more and diverse institutions from each of the eight member countries.

The Secretariat has strived to define paths, to reinforce consultations, to expand institutional participation and to present the treaty as an effective instrument for channelling regional initiatives into research in the sustainable development of the Amazon basin. To a certain extent, some of these goals have been attained.

The periodic holding of meetings of the treaty mechanisms has facilitated the adoption of decisions that support, reinforce, and expand the scope of common action. More than 40 meetings, seminars, or workshops have been held by the parties recently, to discuss substantial policy matters as well as specific technical topics. All of them have or will have concrete effects on the sustainable economic yield of Amazonian resources, improvement of the living standards of the population, reinforcement of the institutional network or on the political dialogue at governmental level.

The government signatories of the treaty, in accordance with decisions taken at the Fifth Meeting of Foreign Affairs Ministers, will shortly install a Permanent Executive Secretariat of the treaty in Brasília. An ad hoc working group was established to that end, and convened on various occasions to meet both in Brasília and in Lima to prepare a proposal that will be duly considered by the competent bodies. The change of status of the Secretariat entails a modification in the text of the treaty, which will be considered in due course by the respective National Congresses.

There is still a long road ahead for achieving full compliance with the treaty goals. The political will demonstrated by the parties shows that it is fully possible to reconcile interests and opinions for carrying into effect development plans compatible with sustainability criteria advanced in 1978 and internationally sanctioned by the Rio Summit on Sustainable Development in 1992.

There are still, however, huge and important challenges ahead. The future of the Amazon region, a subject on which there persist certain differences, must be gradually approached while the experience of horizontal cooperation continues to be consolidated. The results of this process, based on dialogue and exchange of information, should have a favourable impact on the adoption of common policies regarding technical cooperation, the use and conservation of natural resources and implementation of projects. Gradually, the result should be universal agreement on criteria and concepts, in order to arrive at a system of physical data acceptable to all for understanding the complex character of biological diversity as a transborder phenomenon.

This process will be strengthened when, as a result of the evaluation of the projects and actions that are implemented, the accumulated experiences are systematized; common operational criteria for the projects are defined; sustainable development models adapted to the unique characteristics of the Amazon are applied; and sustainable development policies and their national, regional, and international inter-relations are analysed and updated.

I thank this Forum, jointly organized by the Consejo Mundial de Aguas, the Asociacion Internacional de Recursos Hidricos y la Organización de Estados Americanos (Organization of American States (OAS)) for the opportunity of explaining the mechanisms and bodies of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty, as well as for the level of operativeness and coordination it demonstrates today. I trust that the exchange of information on the basins of the Plata, São Francisco, and Amazon rivers will contribute important concepts for all Latin America, and specifically for the representatives of the member countries grouped in CETICAM, which has, among others, the task of identifying alternatives of intermodal connection between the basins of the Amazon, Plata, and Orinoco rivers, taking into account the waterways and the physical characteristics of the region.

This task implies giving priority to the utilization of the extensive network of waterways in these basins and maximum intermodal integration with operative roads, to prevent the risk of negative environmental impact caused by new roads, with the consequent deforestation of huge areas and occupation of unsuitable land for agricultural purposes.

The objectives of this programme are consistent with other programmes of the Special Commission, such as the one on river transportation, aimed at designing general strategies and specific projects for the development of river transportation as a natural means of access and communication in the Amazon basin, where the Amazon river is the backbone of transportation.

Notes

1. D'Achile, Barbara, Brack Egg, Antonio, and Wust, Walter H., 1996. Uturunkusuyo: El Territorio del Jaguar. Perú: Parques Nacionales y otras áreas de conservación ecológica, 1st edn. Lima: De Peisa, Banco Latino.

2. In addition, the Presidents of the Amazonian countries have met twice in the city of Manaos, upon the initiative of the Government of Brazil: in May 1989 and in February 1992, at which times the Presidents issued the "Declaration of the Amazon" and the "Documento de Posicion Conjunta de los Paises Amazonicos con miras a la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo" (Joint Document of the Amazonian Countries towards the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development).


Annex 1: Organizational chart of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty


Annex 2: Pro Tempore Secretariat of the ACT (1994-1997)

Annex 3: Regional programmes within the framework of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty

I. Special Commission of the Amazon Region on the Environment

CEMAA-1

"Zonificación ecológica-económica y monitoreo de las alteraciones en el uso de la tierra"


Coordinator: Brazil

CEMAA-2

"Ecología, biodiversidad y dinámica de poblaciones"


Coordinator: Venezuela

CEMAA-3

"Fauna silvestre"


Coordinator: Suriname

CEMAA-4

"Recursos hidrobiológicos"


Coordinator: Perú

CEMAA-5

"Defensa y aprovechamiento de los recursos forestales"


Coordinator: Ecuador

CEMAA-6

"Planificación y manejo de areas protegidas"


Coordinator: Colombia

CEMAA-7

"Unificación y/o interrelación metodologías para la evaluación de impactos ambientales, compatibilización de legislaciones ambientales e intercambio de informaciones sobre programas nacionales de protección del medio ambiente en la región amazónica."


Coordinator: Bolivia

CEMAA-8

"Investigación animal"


Coordinator: Guyana

II. Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Science and Technology

CECTA-1

"Inventario, uso, manejo y conservación de suelos"


Coordinator: Guyana

CECTA-2

"Sistemas integrales de producción vegetal"


Coordinator: Ecuador

CECTA-3

"Balance hídrico"


Coordinator: Bolivia

CECTA-4

"Estudios e investigaciones en ciencias sociales"


Coordinator: Colombia

CECTA-5

"Planificación y gestión en ciencia y tecnología"


Coordinator: Brazil

CECTA-6

"Producción animal"


Coordinator: Suriname

CECTA-7

"Desarrollo y adaptación de tecnologías para la amazonia"


Coordinator: Venezuela

CECTA-8

"Recursos zoo y fitogenéticos"


Coordinator: Perú

III. Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Health

CESAM-1

"Planificación general de la salud y sistema regional de información"


Coordinator: Bolivia

CESAM-2

"Materno-Infantil y atención primaria"


Coordinator: Brazil

CESAM-3

"Enfermedades tropicales"


Coordinator: Ecuador

CESAM-4

"Saneamiento básico"


Coordinator: Perú

CESAM-5

"Desarrollo y organización de servicios de salud"


Coordinator: Venezuela

CESAM-6

"Desastres"


Coordinator: Colombia

CESAM-7

"Medicina tradicional y salud en las comunidades indígenas"


Coordinator: Ecuador

CESAM-8

"Medicamentos básicos, esenciales y genéricos"


Coordinator: Guyana

IV. Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Indigenous Affairs

CEAIA-1

Conocimiento de culturas indígenas

CEAIA-2

Participación indígena en programas que le afecten

CEAIA-3

Atención Estatal a las comunidades indígenas

CEAIA-4

Educación en las comunidades indígenas

CEAIA-5

Salud en las comunidades indígenas

CEAIA-6

Legislación indígena

CEAIA-7

Desarrollo Regional y las Comunidades Indígenas

CEAIA-8

Coordinación de programación y sistema regional de información

V. Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Transportation, Infrastructure, and Communications

CETICAM-1

"Plan general de transporte para la región amazónica"


Coordinator: Brazil

CETICAM-2

"Transporte fluvial"


Coordinator: Bolivia

CETICAM-3

"Transporte terrestre"


Coordinator: Colombia

CETICAM-4

"Transporte aéreo"


Coordinator: Perú

CETICAM-5

"Comunicaciones"


Coordinator: To be decided

CETICAM-6

"Corredores interoceánicos"


Coordinator: Ecuador

CETICAM-7

"La Cuenca Amazónica y la factibilidad de interconexión con las cuencas de los ríos La Plata y Orinoco"


Coordinator: Venezuela

CETICAM-8

"Infraestructura"


Coordinator: To be decided

VI. Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Tourism

CETURA-1

"Plan de desarrollo turístico integrado y sistema de información turística de la subregión amazónica"


Coordinator: Suriname/Guyana

CETURA-2

"Investigaciones de mercado, comercialización y promoción turística conjunta de la subregión amazónica"


Coordinator: Venezuela

CETURA-3

"Apoyo a la información y capacitación turística de los recursos humanos de la subregión amazónica"


Coordinator: Perú

CETURA-4

"Compatibilización de la legislación turística y facilitación turística de los para la subregión amazónica"


Coordinator: Colombia

CETURA-5

"Evaluación de los efectos del turismo en el desarrollo sostenible de la subregión amazónica"


Coordinator: Bolivia

CETURA-6

"Identificación de oportunidades de inversión, promoción de inversiones en servicios de infraestructura turística con contenido de integración"


Coordinator: Brazil

CETURA-7

"Investigación en materia de infraestructura turística en la subregión amazónica"


Coordinator: Ecuador

Annex 4: List of Publications edited by the Pro Tempore Secretariat of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty (1994-1997)

Issued

Diagnostico de los recursos hidrobiológicos de la Amazonia (Diagnosis of the hidrobiological resources in the Amazon region). Amazon Cooperation Treaty, Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 162 pp. 1994. (SPT-TCA/No. 22)

Experiencias agroforestales exitosas en la Cuenca Amazónica. (Successful agroforestal experiences in the Amazon basin) Amazon Cooperation Treaty, Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 195 pp. 1994. (SPT-TCA/No. 23)

Propostas de políticas e estrategias regionais para o aproveitamento sustentável dos recursos fitogenéticos de cultivos alimentíceos e fruteiras amazônicas. (Political proposals and regional strategies for the management of the fitogeneric resources of amazon nutritional crops and fruits) Amazon Cooperation Treaty, Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 49 pp. 1994. (SPT-TCA/No. 24)

Manual de entrenamiento: Sistemas fotovoltáicos para electrificación rural. (Training manual: photovoltaics systems for rural electrification) Amazon Cooperation Treaty, Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 194 pp. 1994. (SPT-TCA/No. 25)

Zonificación ecológica-económica: Instrumento para la conservación y el desarrollo sostenible de los recursos de la Amazonia. Memorias. (Ecological-economic zoning: instrument for the conservation and sustainable development of the resources in the Amazon region. Notes) Amazon Cooperation Treaty, Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 382 pp. 1994. (SPT-TCA/No. 26)

Plantas medicinales amazónicas: Realidad y perspectivas. (Amazon medicinal plants: reality and perspectives) Amazon Cooperation Treaty, Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 302 pp. 1995. (SPT-TCA/No. 28)

Propuesta de Tarapoto sobre criterios e indicadores de sostenibilidad del Bosque Amazónico. Memorias. (Tarapoto proposal on criteria and indicators for the sustainability of the Amazon forest. Notes) Amazon Cooperation Treaty, Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 189 pp. 1995. (SPT-TCA/No. 29)

Memorias de la mesa redonda sobre microempresas agroindustriales como factor de desarrollo sostenible de la región Amazónica. (Proceedings of the Round Table on agroindustrial microenterprises as a factor for the sustainable development of the Amazon region) Amazon Cooperation Treaty, Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 264 pp. 1995. (SPT-TCA/No. 30)

Biodiversidad y salud en las poblaciones indígenas de la Amazonia. (Biodiversity and health in the indigenous populations of the Amazon region) Amazon Cooperation Treaty, Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 312 pp. 1995. (SPT-TCA/No. 31)

Inventario y análisis de instituciones y proyectos de conservación y desarrollo en la Amazonia venezolana. (Inventory and analysis of institutions and projects of conservation in the Venezuelan Amazon region) Amazon Cooperation Treaty, Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 157 pp. 1995. (SPT-TCA/No. 32)

Inventario de proyectos y presencia institucional en la región amazónica colombiana. (Inventory of projects and institutional performance in the Colombian Amazon region) Amazon Cooperation Treaty, Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 136 pp. 1995. (SPT-TCA/No. 33)

Perspectivas del turismo sostenible en la Amazonia. (Perspectives of sustainable tourism in the Amazon region) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 125 pp. 1995. (SPT-TCA/No. 34)

Uso y conservación de la fauna silvestre en la Amazonia. (Management and conservation of wildlife in the Amazon region) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 216 pp. 1995. (SPT-TCA/No. 35)

Base jurídica del Amazon Cooperation Treaty, 4 ed. revisada y actualizada. (Legal framework of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty, 4th edn, revised and updated) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 300 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 36)

Legal framework of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty. 1994-1995. Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 104 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 37)

Comisión Especial de Ciencia y Tecnología de la Amazonia (CECTA). Antecedentes constitutivos, actas y anexos de las reuniones. (Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Science and Technology. Background, minutes and annexes of the meetings) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 138 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 38)

Comisión Especial de Media Ambiente de la Amazonia (CEMAA). Antecedentes constitutivos, actas y anexos de las reuniones. (Special Commission of the Amazon Region on the environment, background, minutes and annexes of the meetings) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 176 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 39)

Patentes, propiedad intelectual y biodiversidad amazónica. (Patents, intellectual property and biodiversity in the Amazon Region) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 456 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 40)

Plan de trabajo e informes de actividades de la Pro Tempore Secretariat del Amazon Cooperation Treaty. (Work plan and reports on the administration of the Pro Tempore Secretariat of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 147 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 41)

Desenvolvimento e conservação na Amazônía Brasileira: Inventario e análise de projetos. (Development and conservation in the Brazilian Amazon region: inventory and analysis of projects) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 247 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 42)

Cultivo del pijuayo (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) para palmito en la Amazonia. (Cultivating pijuayo for palmito in the Amazon region) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 153 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 43)

Frutales y hortalizas promisorios de la Amazonia. (Promising fruits and plants in the Amazon Region) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 450 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 44)

Inventory of institutions and projects operating in the Amazon region of Suriname. Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 106 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 45)

El cultivo del camu camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh) en la Amazonia peruana. (Cultivation of Camu-Camu in the Peruvian Amazon Region) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 95 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 46)

Piscicultura amazónica con especies nativas. (Amazon fishing with native species) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 169 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 47)

Crianza familiar del majaz o paca (Agouti paca) en la Amazonia. (Smallholdings of majaz or paca in the Amazon region) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 43 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 48)

Comisión Especial de Transportes, Comunicaciones e Infraestructura de la Amazonia (CETICAM). Antecedentes constitutivos, actas y anexos de las reuniones. (Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Transport, Communications and Infrastructure. Background, minutes and annexes of the meetings) Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 299 pp. 1996. (SPT-TCA/No. 49)

Proposal of criteria and indicators for sustainability of the Amazon forest. Results of the regional workshop. Amazon Cooperation Treaty. Pro Tempore Secretariat. Lima, Peru. 149 pp. 1995. Publicación trilingüe: ingles, español y portugués. (SPT-TCA/s.n.)

Forthcoming

Tierras y Areas Indígenas en la Amazonia: Una experiencia regional participativa. (Indigenous lands and areas in the Amazon region: a regional participatory experience). 200 pp. approx.

"Estrategias y Acciones para un Programa Regional de Promoción de la Producción Sostenible y Utilización de Frutales y Hortalizas" 200 pp. Memorias de la Mesa Redonda sobre la Complementariedad de la Producción Frutihortícola Amazonica con el Desarrollo de Microempresas Agroindustriales en los Países del TCA. (Strategies and actions regarding a regional programme for the promotion of sustainable production and use of fruit trees and vegetables. Minutes of the Round Table on Complementarity between Amazon Fruit and Horticultural Production and Agro-industrial Microenterprise Development in the Countries of the ACT).

"Manual de Cultivo y Uso de Plantas Medicinales en la Amazonia" (Manual of breeding and use of medicinal plants in the Amazon region).

"Procesamiento a Pequeña Escala de Frutas y Hortalizas Amazónicas Nativas e Introducidas - Manual Técnico". 140 pp. approx. (Small-scale processing of native and imported fruits and vegetables of the Amazon region - technical manual).

In Preparation

Comisión Especial de Turismo de la Amazonia (CETURA). Antecedentes constitutivos, actas y anexos de las reuniones. 250 pp. approx. (Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Tourism (CETURA). Background, minutes and appendixes of the meetings).

Comisión Especial de Salud de la Amazonia (CESAM). Antecedentes constitutivos, actas y anexos de las reuniones. 250 pp. approx. (Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Health (CESAM). Background, minutes and appendixes of the meetings).

Comisión Especial de Asuntos Indígenas de la Amazonia (CEAIA). Antecedentes constitutivos, actas y anexos de las reuniones. 350 pp. (Special Commission of the Amazon Region on Indigenous Affairs (CEAIA). Background, minutes and appendixes of the meetings).

Memorias del Seminario-Taller "Propuesta Metodológica para la Zonificación Ecológica-Económica para la Amazonia". 500 pp. approx. (Proceedings of the Seminar Workshop "Metodological Proposal for the Participatory Ecological-Economical Zoning for the Amazon Region.")

Inventario de Proyectos y Presencia Institucional en la Región Amazonica Peruana. 80 pp. approx. (Inventory of projects and institutional performance in the Peruvian Amazon region).

Informe de Actividades y de Gestión de la Pro Tempore Secretariat. Perú. SPT-TCA. 100 pp. approx. (Reports on the activities and administration of the Pro Tempore Secretariat of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty).

Video

Manual de Procesamiento de Frutas y Hortalizas (Manual of fruit and vegetable processing).

CD-ROM

Bases de Datos sobre Poblaciones Indígenas de la Amazonia (Database on indigenous populations in the Amazon region).

Base de Datos sobre Poblaciones Indígenas de la Región Amazónica Peruana (Database on indigenous populations in the Peruvian Amazon region).

Colección de publicaciones de la Pro Tempore Secretariat (1994-1997) (Compilation of publications edited by the Pro Tempore Secretariat of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty 1994-1997).