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close this bookProtein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data (UNU, 1981, 268 p.)
close this folderProtein requirements-children
close this folderProtein absorption of pre-school children with intestinal helminth parasites
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentObjective
View the documentExperimental details
View the documentSummary of main results
View the documentConclusions and comments

Summary of main results

1. Body Weight
Most children gained weight at a rate three times greater than the Korean standard for the corresponding age during the experimental period (an average gain of 0.99 kg in 11 weeks). This suggests that energy intakes were above requirements. There were no differences in weight gains before and after treatment.

2. Height
Most children gained 1.8 to 2.2 cm in ten weeks, which is more than the Korean standard of 1.2 cm for the corresponding age group. There were no differences before and after treatment.

3. Parasitological Observations
Table 5 gives the ova counts on each of the three days before and after treatment and the number of helminths identified in faeces during the three days after treatment.

TABLE 4. Estimation of Faecal Obligatory Nitrogen Losses

No. of subjects

Levels of nitrogen intake

Faecal nitrogen output (mg/kg/day)

 

Range
(mg/kg/day)

Mean
(mg/kg/day)

 
Before vermicide      
8

228 - 269

250.0 4.53*

79.46 5.21

9

270 - 300

286.8 3.47

84.86 7.03

10

308- 340

322.1 3.54

94.03 5.77

10

344 - 371

353.5 2.61

98.53 + 6.13

Y = 31.64 + 0.19x (for X = 0, Y = 32)
After vermicide      
9

262 - 276

269.8 1.70

83.90 4.23

8

282 - 311

299.3 3.44

92.66 4.16

9

315 - 362

346.9 4.70

96.61 5.65

9

356 - 397

381.1 3.32

111.90 6.17

Y=21.69+0.23x (for X=0, Y=22)

* Mean S.E.

4. Nitrogen Digestibility and Balance
Table 6 gives the "true" nitrogen digestibility and "true" nitrogen balance data, as well as the biological values and NPU. There were no differences before and after treatment. There was a poor correlation between nitrogen balance and nitrogen intake.

5. Urinary Urea and Creatinine Excretions
Table 7 gives the results obtained.

6. Absorption of Nutrients
Table 8 gives the apparent absorption of carbohydrates and fat, the "true" absorption of protein, and the estimated absorption of total dietary energy.

TABLE 5. Parasitological Findings in Stools

Subject

EPG* before vermicide

Worms excreted in 3 days after vermicide

EPG after vermicide

 

Day 3

Day 2

Day 1

 

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

1 Al **

8,100

11,900

15,300

Al

8

Al

Neg.***

Neg.

Neg.

  Tt **

100

100

 

Tt

2

Tt

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

2 Al

28,700

11,600

18,000

Al

8

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

  Tt

1,400

400

1,200

Tt

1

Tt

100

Neg.

Neg.

3 Al

22,600

32,000

35,100

Al

14

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

  Tt

500

500

300

Tt

2

Tt

100

Neg.

Neg.

Subjects 4 and 5 dropped
6 Al

28,300

44,900

4,300

AL

8

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

  Tt

400

       

Tt

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

7 Al

6,500

10,200

19,200

Al

14

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

  Tt

3

       

Tt

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

8 AL

6,100

9,800

2,700

Al

2

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

9 Al

4,200

13,700

18,100

Al

6

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

10 Al

11,000

10,900

5,000

Al

2

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

  Tt

200

400

 

Tt

2

Tt

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

11 Al

300

600

4,300

Al

10

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

12 Al

200

400

200

Al

1

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

* EPG = number of eggs per gram of stool.
** Al = Ascaris lumbricoides; T = Trichuris trichiura.
*** Neg. = negative.

TABLE 6. Nitrogen Balance, BV, and NPU before and after Vermicidal Treatment

Diet No of subjects Nitrogen intake Faecal nitrogen (mg/kg/day) Urinary nitrogen Balance True
digestibility
(%)
BV NPU (kcal/kg/
day)
Energy
intake
Before vermicide
A 9 259.94 * 92.80 10.8.37 53.79 76.49 69.68 53.24 103.50
    8.21 6.70 6.48 9.44 2.67 3.05 2.91 2.74
C 10 276.36 92.48 130.67 48.26 78.17 61.50 48.05 98.0
    9.12 6.39 4.85 7.95 2.15 1.99 1.89 3.13
B 10 323.60 89.44 161.98 67.18 82.49 56.97 47.04 97.56
    7.72 6.97 3.84 7.05 1.91 1.73 1.98 2.36
D 11 340.53 91.95 191.09 52.49 82.43 49.05 40.55 92.15
    7.14 5.78 6.30 6.30 1.60 1.82 1.89 1.86
Average   302.12 91.65 150.10 55.39 79.90 59.30 47.22 98
      3.11 3.68 3.84 2.08 2.15 2.19 1.4
After vermicide
A 10 270.88 8522 117.28 63.38 80.36 68.17 54.76 102.49
    1.94 4.01 5.11 5.80 1.50 2.28 1.99 0.91
C 8 303.30 97.20 140.20 60.90 78.54 61.08 48.11 101.60
    2.94 6.60 4.15 7.15 2.09 1.96 2.37 0.89
B 9 353.49 92.93 178.79 76.77 82.77 55.28 45.73 101.98
    3.52 3.41 4.68 5.33 0.97 1.53 1.37 1.06
D 8 383.13 113.35 210.58 52.97 78.75 46.06 36.19 102.39
    4.00 6.97 6.98 2.99 1.69 1.36 0.91 0.90
Average   324.90 96.37 159.66 63.85 80.11 57.65 46.20 102
      3.03 6.65 3.03 1.56 1.78 1.67 0.5

* Mean S.E.

TABLE 7. Daily Urinary Excretion of Urea Nitrogen and Creatinine (mg/kg/day)

Item

Diets

 

A

C

B

D

Before vermicide  
Ures N (UuN)

77.97 + 5.50 *

91.15 4.05

112.38 2.96

139.57 5.37

Creatinine (UCr)

15.65 0.57

15.15 0.57

16.12 0.54

15.20 0.48

UtN **/nitrogen intake

9.42

0.47

0.50

0.56

UuN/UCr

4.98

6.00

6.98

9.18

UuN/nitrogen intake

0.39

0.33

0 35

0.41

UuN/UtN

0.72

0.70

0.70

0.73

After vermicide  
Urea N (UuN)

89.55 3.91

109.93 3.69

152.505.05

169.486.82

Creatinine (UCr)

15.13 0.43

15.71 0.46

15.90 0.56

16.72 0.69

UtN/nitrogen intake

0.43

0.46

0.51

0.55

Uun/UCr

5.93

7.00

9.59

10.15

UuN/nitrogen intake

0.33

0.36

0.43

0.44

UuN/UtN

0.76

0.78

0.85

0.80

* Mean S.E,
** UtN = total urinary nitrogen.

There were no differences at the various levels of protein intake or as a result of vermicidal treatment.

7. Analyses of Blood and Serum Samples
There were no significant changes during the study and all results were within normal ranges.