|Protein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data (UNU, 1981, 268 p.)|
|Recommended dietary amounts of energy for pregnancy and lactation in the United Kingdom|
Twenty-five women were recruited near the beginning of the second trimester of pregnancy through the antenatal clinic of the Cambridge Maternity Hospital. They were 21 to 35 years old (mean 29) and belonged to social grades I, II, and III. Twelve were primiparous and worked during most of their pregnancy, mainly in a clerical capacity. None of the multiparous mothers had outside jobs. Their mean height was 161.7 cm (147.5 to 172.5), and the stated pre-pregnant weight was 56.2 (43.5 to 71.7). The validity of the latter measurement was verified by comparison with the initial weight found on recruitment.
2. Dietary Intake
Energy and nutrient intakes were measured over four consecutive days each month throughout pregnancy and lactation by the mother herself, after instruction, weighing the food and drink she consumed. The food intake measurements were interpreted using food composition tables.
3. Weight Changes and Stored Energy
A number of anthropometric measurements were made, including weight, at monthly intervals throughout pregnancy, at two weeks after delivery, and then once again at monthly intervals. Energy stored as fat during pregnancy was estimated from the difference in body weight between two weeks postpartum and the pre-pregnant weight, making the assumption that adipose tissue provides, during lactation, 6.5 kcal/g body-weight change (Thomson et al., Brit,J. Nutr., 24: 565  ).
4. Duration of Pregnancy and Birth Weights
Birth weights, which were all over 2.6 kg, were obtained by the maternity hospital staff. Mean gestational age was 39 completed weeks, range 36 to 43 weeks.
5. Breast-milk Production
Breast-milk intake was also measured by the mother on four consecutive days each month by test weighing, using Salter Baby weigher Model 40 Scales. The test weighing measurements in a number of subjects were checked by the recently developed deuterium oxide method (Coward et al., Lancet, ii: 13 , the milk intakes showing good agreement between the two procedures.