|Protein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data (UNU, 1981, 268 p.)|
|Obligatory and integumental nitrogen losses - children|
|Obligatory nitrogen losses and factorial calculations of protein requirements of pre-school children|
a. Five children, all males, of mixed Maya and Caucasian descent (Lading).
b. Chronological age: 24 ± 5 months (range: 17 to 31). Height-age: 16 ± 5 months (range: 10 to 23).
c. All had been treated for severe, oedematous protein-energy malnutrition (kwashiorkor and marasmickwashiorkorl. They had recovered fully at least one month before beginning the studies, based on clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical criteria (plasma proteins, non-essential/essential amino acid ratio, haematological indices, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine-height index [CHI] ).
d. Weight: 10.66 ± 1.14 kg (range: 8.82 to 11.96). Height: 79.8 ± 4.9 cm (range: 72.9 to 86.4). Weight-for-height, percentage of expected: 98 ± 1 per cent (range: 96 to 100 per cent). CHI: 0.95 ± 0.07 (range: 0.89 to 1.04).
e. Intestinal parasites: Two children had asymptomatic giardiasis. One of them also had a light infestation with Trichuris trichiura (one or two eggs per microscopic slide preparation). They were not treated before the study.
f. All children were healthy throughout the study.
2. Study Environment
INCAP's Clinical Centre in Guatemala City, 1,500 m above sea level. Temperature: 18 to 24° C. Relative humidity: 40 to 50 per cent.
3. Physical Activity
Since no child had diarrhoea and defecation habits were known by the nurses, the children were confined to metabolic beds only part of the day. During most of the day they moved freely in the Clinical Centre and outdoor playing grounds wearing urine-collection bags, except for those children who were toilet-trained. They participated in games that involved climbing ramps, walking uphill, and tossing balls.
4. Duration of the Study
Four children were studied simultaneously for nine days. A fifth child was studied five months later for seven days.
6. Indicators and Measurements