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close this bookProtein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data (UNU, 1981, 268 p.)
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close this folderA note on energy utilization and its efficiency
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close this folderResearch papers: Protein requirements-adults, standard protocols
close this folderCapacity of the Chilean mixed diet to meet the protein and energy requirements of young adult males
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close this folderProtein requirements for young Colombian adults consuming local diets containing primarily animal or vegetable protein
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close this folderProtein requirements of young Chinese male adults for ordinary Chinese
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close this folderProtein requirements of young male adults with a rural Mexican diet
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close this folderThe evaluation of soy protein isolate alone and in combination with fish in adult Japanese men
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close this folderProtein requirements of adult Thai males
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close this folderEvaluation of the nutritive value of a rice-and-bean-based diet for agricultural migrant workers in Brazil
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close this folderProtein requirements-adults, other protocols
close this folderProtein quality of rice-and-bean diets with or without protein and energy supplements to estimate protein requirements in young adult humans
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close this folderProtein needs of young adult men fed common beans (phaseolus vulgaris) in combination with starch, plantain, maize, or rice
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses-adults
close this folderObligatory urinary and faecal nitrogen losses in young Chilean men fed two levels of dietary energy intake
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close this folderProtein absorption of adult men with intestinal helminthic parasites
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close this folderAbsorptive capacity of adult Guatemalan rural males living under different conditions of sanitation
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close this folderStudies of energy intakes, expenditures, and requirements in China
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close this folderObligatory and integumental nitrogen losses - children
close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses and factorial calculations of protein requirements of pre-school children
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close this folderIntegumental nitrogen losses of pre-school children with different levels and sources of dietary protein intake
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View the documentThe protein requirements of normal infants at the age of about one year: maintenance nitrogen requirements and obligatory nitrogen losses
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close this folderProtein requirements of Filipino children 20 to 29 months old consuming local diets
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close this folderProtein requirements of pre-school children: milk and soybean protein isolate
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close this folderProtein absorption of pre-school children with intestinal helminth parasites
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close this folderCapacity of habitual Guatemalan diets to satisfy protein requirements of pre-school children with adequate dietary energy intakes
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close this folderEnergy requirements of pre-school children and effects of varying energy intakes on protein metabolism
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close this folderRecommended dietary energy intakes for the first six months of life
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close this folderProtein-energy requirements-adults
close this folderInterrelationships between effects of protein and energy intakes on nitrogen utilization in adult men
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close this folderRecommended dietary amounts of energy for pregnancy and lactation in the United Kingdom
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View the documentList of participants

Experimental details

1. Subjects
Six boys and four girls, 52 to 70 months old, were selected among pre-schoolers from agricultural villages in the northwestern part of South Korea, about 48 km from Seoul. Their characteristics are given in table 1. They were healthy and normal, except for the intestinal parasites, based on medical history, physical examination, and laboratory analyses of blood and urine specimens, including transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities.

2. Study Environrnent
The tests were done in a field metabolic unit during the fall. Outdoor temperature ranged from 3 to 25 C, and indoor temperature from 18 to 24 C.

3. Physical Activity
The activities of these children were normal for their age.

4. Duration of the Study
The study iasted ten weeks, divided into three periods: a. The first feeding period (BfV) was before treatment with a vermicide and lasted four weeks. b. The second period lasted two weeks, with a free-choice diet comparable to what the subjects ate at home. Ten mg/kg of Combantrin was given on the first day of this period. c. The third period (AV), after the vermicide treatment, lasted four weeks.

TABLE 1. Characteristics of Subjects

 

Energy

 

Intake

Approximate requimments ***

Subject

Sex

Age
(years-
months)

Height
(cm)
m/hr)

Weight
(kg)

SA*
(m )

BMR *
(kcal/ m/hr)

BfV **

AV

Estimated

FAO/
WHO

             

(kcal/kg/day)

1

M

5-10

114.6

22.92

0.83

54.8

91.5

102.7

81.0

70.1

2

M

5- 9

11 5.6

20.5

0.80

55.4

86.9

102.7

88.2

74.2

3

M

5 - 9

107.5

1 7.67

0.72

59.9

101.8

100.0

102.5

80.3

Subjects 4 and 5 dropped
6

M

4- 4

107.3

18.64

0.73

60.7

92.9

102.5

96.9

75.7

7

M

4- 7

97.3

15.08

0.63

63.2

100.4

104.3

107.7

81 7

8

M

4- 7

96.3

14.83

0.62

64.2

101.2

106.8

109.5

82.6

9

F

5- 9

108.8

17.79

0.72

60.7

100.7

993

100,2

76.0

10

F

4- 8

95.8

15.92

0.63

61.2

103,7

99.6

98.8

80.1

11

F

4- 7

108.4

18.74

0.74

58.5

98.6

100.2

94,3

75,7

12

F

4 7

98.1

14.44

0.62

56.4

99.4

98.9

98.8

83.6

* Surface area (SA) and BMR were measured on the last day of the eighth experimental week. SA w0.425 x H0.725 x 71.84.
** BfV - before vermicide; AV ** after vermicide.
*** Approximate energy requirements: estimeted - BMR (kcal/day) x 1.7/body weight (BW); FAD/WHO = 1973 recommendations.

5. Dietary Intakes
Because of a generally low intake of animal protein, a daily supplemental feeding consisting of 150 ml of whole cow's milk was added to each subject's ordinary daily diet for one month before initiation of the study. The experimental diets were devised to provide approximately 100 kcal/kg/day and four levels of dietary protein (1.50, 1.75, 2.00, and 2.25 g/kg/day: diets A, B, C, and D, respectively), based on the local diet (see table 2). The four levels of dietary protein were fed in four consecutive weeks, both before and after treatment with the vermicide (BfV and AV, respectively). Three isoenergetic and isonitrogenous meals and light snacks were provided each day. Additional food intake, mainly rice, was allowed on request, especially in the AV period. A record was kept of each subject's food intake. Vitamin and mineral supplements were given once a day to meet requirements. Table 3 gives the estimated essential amino acid content and the chemical score of the experimental diets.

6. Indicators and Measurements

  1. Complete urine and faecal collections were made daily throughout the two experimental feeding periods. Total nitrogen (micro-Kjeldahl), urea nitrogen (Folin-Wu), and creatinine (diacetyl-monoxime) were measured in the urine collected during the last four days of each week with a given diet. Nitrogen was also measured in faeces pooled during the same four days and in aliquots of the diets.
  2. Fats (Soxhlet) and ash (combustion) in food and faeces were measured. Carbohydrates were calculated by subtracting protein, fat, ash, and moisture from total weights of food and faeces. Their energy contents were calculated using 4, 4, and 9 kcal per gram of carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively.
  3. Nude body weight was recorded daily after the subject had voided the first morning urine before breakfast.
  4. Venous blood samples were drawn before breakfast on the first and last days of the study. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, serum glucose, urea nitrogen, creatinine, SOOT, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin, and globulins were measured.
  5. Stool examinations for the quantitative determination of helminth eggs were performed each of the first three days in both experimental periods (BfV and AV). The parasites expelled on the first three days after treatment were identified and counted.
  6. The basal metabolic rate (BMR) was measured on day 14 of the AV period by the Douglas bag spirometer method.
  7. The faecal obligatory nitrogen losses were estimated from the Y intercept of the regression equation of faecal nitrogen (Y) on nitrogen intake (X) (table 4). Digestibilities of protein and energy were expressed as the percentage of intake that was absorbed.

TABLE 2. Food Ingredients in the Daily Diet of a 17-kg Child (g/day)

Foods

Dietary Periods

 

A

B

C

D

Rice

270

270

270

270

Wheat flour

-

13

-

-

Biscuits

-

30

-

20

Potato

80

80

80

30

Soybean curd

-

22

20

30

Soybean paste

-

25

-

9

Soy sauce

6

2.5

5

1

Radish

160

80

140

110

Spinach

-

25

-

30

Onion

5

10

10

10

Carrots

5

10

10

10

Seaweed

-

-

-

3

Candy

60

     
Sugar

-

12

70

46

Jam

50

30

-

10

Apple

-

-

80

100

Pear

75

100

100

100

Orange juice

100

100

100

100

Oil

1

2

1

1

Beef

10

2.5

-

15

Sausage

-

-

15

 
Dried small fish

-

2

1

1

Egg

-

-

-

30

Energy, kcal

1,660-

1,660

1,660

1,660

Protein, total g

26.2

34.1

29.5

38.3

g/kg

(1.5)

12.0)

(1.75)

12.25)

animal

3.6

4.3

2.6

7.5

Fibre,g

3.1

5.0

3.7

4.2

TABLE 3. Essential Amino Acid Composition of Experimental Diets (mg/g Protein)

   

Diet A

Diet B

Diet C

Diet D

Amino acid

FAO/WHO (S)

mg

(A/S) %

mg

(B/S) %

mg

(C/S) %

mg

(D/S) %

Isoleucine

40

45.5

114

45.3

113

47.2

118

46.0

115

Leucine

70

83.8

120

82.1

118

82.1

118

81.5

116

Lysine

55

49.1 *

89

50.8

92

49.9 *

91

51.9

94

Methionine +Cystine

35

34.2

98

32.0 *

91

33.9

97

32.5*

93

Phenylalanine +Tyrosine

60

82.0

137

80.4

134

79.7

133

79.2

132

Threonine

40

39.8

99

38.9

97

39.5

99

39.4

99

Tryptophan

10

11.6

116

12.1

121

11.7

117

12.4

124

Valine

50

57.2

114

54.9

110

55.9

112

55.8

112

Total

360

 

428.6

 

421.4

 

423.9

 

422.6

* First limiting amino acid.

An obligatory faecal nitrogen loss of 32 mg/kg/day was used to calculate "true" protein digestibility. True nitrogen balance was calculated assuming 5 mg N/kg/day for integumental and miscellaneous losses. The biological value (BV) of protein was estimated as:

BV = (intake-faecal-urinary + faecal and urinary obligatory losses) X 100/(intake-faecal + faecal obligatory loss)

where the obligatory faecal and urinary losses were assumed to be 32 and 48 mg N/kg/day, respectively. The net protein utilization (NPU) was calculated from the biological value and digestibility.