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close this bookProtein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data (UNU, 1981, 268 p.)
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close this folderA note on energy utilization and its efficiency
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close this folderResearch papers: Protein requirements-adults, standard protocols
close this folderCapacity of the Chilean mixed diet to meet the protein and energy requirements of young adult males
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close this folderProtein requirements for young Colombian adults consuming local diets containing primarily animal or vegetable protein
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close this folderProtein requirements of young Chinese male adults for ordinary Chinese
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close this folderProtein requirements of young male adults with a rural Mexican diet
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close this folderThe evaluation of soy protein isolate alone and in combination with fish in adult Japanese men
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close this folderProtein requirements of adult Thai males
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close this folderEvaluation of the nutritive value of a rice-and-bean-based diet for agricultural migrant workers in Brazil
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close this folderProtein requirements-adults, other protocols
close this folderProtein quality of rice-and-bean diets with or without protein and energy supplements to estimate protein requirements in young adult humans
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close this folderProtein needs of young adult men fed common beans (phaseolus vulgaris) in combination with starch, plantain, maize, or rice
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses-adults
close this folderObligatory urinary and faecal nitrogen losses in young Chilean men fed two levels of dietary energy intake
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close this folderProtein absorption of adult men with intestinal helminthic parasites
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close this folderAbsorptive capacity of adult Guatemalan rural males living under different conditions of sanitation
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close this folderStudies of energy intakes, expenditures, and requirements in China
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close this folderObligatory and integumental nitrogen losses - children
close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses and factorial calculations of protein requirements of pre-school children
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close this folderIntegumental nitrogen losses of pre-school children with different levels and sources of dietary protein intake
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View the documentThe protein requirements of normal infants at the age of about one year: maintenance nitrogen requirements and obligatory nitrogen losses
close this folderProtein requirements-children
close this folderProtein requirements of Filipino children 20 to 29 months old consuming local diets
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close this folderProtein requirements of pre-school children: milk and soybean protein isolate
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close this folderCapacity of habitual Guatemalan diets to satisfy protein requirements of pre-school children with adequate dietary energy intakes
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close this folderEnergy requirements of pre-school children and effects of varying energy intakes on protein metabolism
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close this folderRecommended dietary energy intakes for the first six months of life
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close this folderProtein-energy requirements-adults
close this folderInterrelationships between effects of protein and energy intakes on nitrogen utilization in adult men
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close this folderRecommended dietary amounts of energy for pregnancy and lactation in the United Kingdom
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Summary of main results

1. Body Weight
Most children gained weight at a rate three times greater than the Korean standard for the corresponding age during the experimental period (an average gain of 0.99 kg in 11 weeks). This suggests that energy intakes were above requirements. There were no differences in weight gains before and after treatment.

2. Height
Most children gained 1.8 to 2.2 cm in ten weeks, which is more than the Korean standard of 1.2 cm for the corresponding age group. There were no differences before and after treatment.

3. Parasitological Observations
Table 5 gives the ova counts on each of the three days before and after treatment and the number of helminths identified in faeces during the three days after treatment.

TABLE 4. Estimation of Faecal Obligatory Nitrogen Losses

No. of subjects

Levels of nitrogen intake

Faecal nitrogen output (mg/kg/day)

 

Range
(mg/kg/day)

Mean
(mg/kg/day)

 
Before vermicide      
8

228 - 269

250.0 4.53*

79.46 5.21

9

270 - 300

286.8 3.47

84.86 7.03

10

308- 340

322.1 3.54

94.03 5.77

10

344 - 371

353.5 2.61

98.53 + 6.13

Y = 31.64 + 0.19x (for X = 0, Y = 32)
After vermicide      
9

262 - 276

269.8 1.70

83.90 4.23

8

282 - 311

299.3 3.44

92.66 4.16

9

315 - 362

346.9 4.70

96.61 5.65

9

356 - 397

381.1 3.32

111.90 6.17

Y=21.69+0.23x (for X=0, Y=22)

* Mean S.E.

4. Nitrogen Digestibility and Balance
Table 6 gives the "true" nitrogen digestibility and "true" nitrogen balance data, as well as the biological values and NPU. There were no differences before and after treatment. There was a poor correlation between nitrogen balance and nitrogen intake.

5. Urinary Urea and Creatinine Excretions
Table 7 gives the results obtained.

6. Absorption of Nutrients
Table 8 gives the apparent absorption of carbohydrates and fat, the "true" absorption of protein, and the estimated absorption of total dietary energy.

TABLE 5. Parasitological Findings in Stools

Subject

EPG* before vermicide

Worms excreted in 3 days after vermicide

EPG after vermicide

 

Day 3

Day 2

Day 1

 

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

1 Al **

8,100

11,900

15,300

Al

8

Al

Neg.***

Neg.

Neg.

  Tt **

100

100

 

Tt

2

Tt

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

2 Al

28,700

11,600

18,000

Al

8

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

  Tt

1,400

400

1,200

Tt

1

Tt

100

Neg.

Neg.

3 Al

22,600

32,000

35,100

Al

14

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

  Tt

500

500

300

Tt

2

Tt

100

Neg.

Neg.

Subjects 4 and 5 dropped
6 Al

28,300

44,900

4,300

AL

8

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

  Tt

400

       

Tt

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

7 Al

6,500

10,200

19,200

Al

14

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

  Tt

3

       

Tt

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

8 AL

6,100

9,800

2,700

Al

2

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

9 Al

4,200

13,700

18,100

Al

6

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

10 Al

11,000

10,900

5,000

Al

2

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

  Tt

200

400

 

Tt

2

Tt

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

11 Al

300

600

4,300

Al

10

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

12 Al

200

400

200

Al

1

Al

Neg.

Neg.

Neg.

* EPG = number of eggs per gram of stool.
** Al = Ascaris lumbricoides; T = Trichuris trichiura.
*** Neg. = negative.

TABLE 6. Nitrogen Balance, BV, and NPU before and after Vermicidal Treatment

Diet No of subjects Nitrogen intake Faecal nitrogen (mg/kg/day) Urinary nitrogen Balance True
digestibility
(%)
BV NPU (kcal/kg/
day)
Energy
intake
Before vermicide
A 9 259.94 * 92.80 10.8.37 53.79 76.49 69.68 53.24 103.50
    8.21 6.70 6.48 9.44 2.67 3.05 2.91 2.74
C 10 276.36 92.48 130.67 48.26 78.17 61.50 48.05 98.0
    9.12 6.39 4.85 7.95 2.15 1.99 1.89 3.13
B 10 323.60 89.44 161.98 67.18 82.49 56.97 47.04 97.56
    7.72 6.97 3.84 7.05 1.91 1.73 1.98 2.36
D 11 340.53 91.95 191.09 52.49 82.43 49.05 40.55 92.15
    7.14 5.78 6.30 6.30 1.60 1.82 1.89 1.86
Average   302.12 91.65 150.10 55.39 79.90 59.30 47.22 98
      3.11 3.68 3.84 2.08 2.15 2.19 1.4
After vermicide
A 10 270.88 8522 117.28 63.38 80.36 68.17 54.76 102.49
    1.94 4.01 5.11 5.80 1.50 2.28 1.99 0.91
C 8 303.30 97.20 140.20 60.90 78.54 61.08 48.11 101.60
    2.94 6.60 4.15 7.15 2.09 1.96 2.37 0.89
B 9 353.49 92.93 178.79 76.77 82.77 55.28 45.73 101.98
    3.52 3.41 4.68 5.33 0.97 1.53 1.37 1.06
D 8 383.13 113.35 210.58 52.97 78.75 46.06 36.19 102.39
    4.00 6.97 6.98 2.99 1.69 1.36 0.91 0.90
Average   324.90 96.37 159.66 63.85 80.11 57.65 46.20 102
      3.03 6.65 3.03 1.56 1.78 1.67 0.5

* Mean S.E.

TABLE 7. Daily Urinary Excretion of Urea Nitrogen and Creatinine (mg/kg/day)

Item

Diets

 

A

C

B

D

Before vermicide  
Ures N (UuN)

77.97 + 5.50 *

91.15 4.05

112.38 2.96

139.57 5.37

Creatinine (UCr)

15.65 0.57

15.15 0.57

16.12 0.54

15.20 0.48

UtN **/nitrogen intake

9.42

0.47

0.50

0.56

UuN/UCr

4.98

6.00

6.98

9.18

UuN/nitrogen intake

0.39

0.33

0 35

0.41

UuN/UtN

0.72

0.70

0.70

0.73

After vermicide  
Urea N (UuN)

89.55 3.91

109.93 3.69

152.505.05

169.486.82

Creatinine (UCr)

15.13 0.43

15.71 0.46

15.90 0.56

16.72 0.69

UtN/nitrogen intake

0.43

0.46

0.51

0.55

Uun/UCr

5.93

7.00

9.59

10.15

UuN/nitrogen intake

0.33

0.36

0.43

0.44

UuN/UtN

0.76

0.78

0.85

0.80

* Mean S.E,
** UtN = total urinary nitrogen.

There were no differences at the various levels of protein intake or as a result of vermicidal treatment.

7. Analyses of Blood and Serum Samples
There were no significant changes during the study and all results were within normal ranges.