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close this bookProtein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data (UNU, 1981, 268 p.)
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View the documentStatistical considerations in the estimation of protein requirements
View the documentA summary analysis of the nitrogen-balance data
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View the documentProtein requirements for adults
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View the documentProtein requirements for children
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close this folderA note on energy utilization and its efficiency
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close this folderResearch papers: Protein requirements-adults, standard protocols
close this folderCapacity of the Chilean mixed diet to meet the protein and energy requirements of young adult males
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close this folderProtein requirements for young Colombian adults consuming local diets containing primarily animal or vegetable protein
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close this folderProtein requirements of young Chinese male adults for ordinary Chinese
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close this folderProtein requirements of young male adults with a rural Mexican diet
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close this folderThe evaluation of soy protein isolate alone and in combination with fish in adult Japanese men
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close this folderProtein requirements of adult Thai males
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close this folderEvaluation of the nutritive value of a rice-and-bean-based diet for agricultural migrant workers in Brazil
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close this folderProtein requirements-adults, other protocols
close this folderProtein quality of rice-and-bean diets with or without protein and energy supplements to estimate protein requirements in young adult humans
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close this folderProtein needs of young adult men fed common beans (phaseolus vulgaris) in combination with starch, plantain, maize, or rice
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses-adults
close this folderObligatory urinary and faecal nitrogen losses in young Chilean men fed two levels of dietary energy intake
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses of adult Thai males
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close this folderNitrogen absorption-adults
close this folderProtein absorption of adult men with intestinal helminthic parasites
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close this folderAbsorptive capacity of adult Guatemalan rural males living under different conditions of sanitation
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close this folderStudies of energy intakes, expenditures, and requirements in China
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close this folderObligatory and integumental nitrogen losses - children
close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses and factorial calculations of protein requirements of pre-school children
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close this folderIntegumental nitrogen losses of pre-school children with different levels and sources of dietary protein intake
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View the documentThe protein requirements of normal infants at the age of about one year: maintenance nitrogen requirements and obligatory nitrogen losses
close this folderProtein requirements-children
close this folderProtein requirements of Filipino children 20 to 29 months old consuming local diets
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close this folderProtein requirements of pre-school children: milk and soybean protein isolate
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close this folderProtein absorption of pre-school children with intestinal helminth parasites
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close this folderUse of corn-bean mixtures to satisfy protein and energy requirements of preschool children
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close this folderProtein-energy requirements-children
close this folderCapacity of habitual Guatemalan diets to satisfy protein requirements of pre-school children with adequate dietary energy intakes
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close this folderEnergy requirements of pre-school children and effects of varying energy intakes on protein metabolism
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close this folderRecommended dietary energy intakes for the first six months of life
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close this folderProtein-energy requirements-adults
close this folderInterrelationships between effects of protein and energy intakes on nitrogen utilization in adult men
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close this folderRecommended dietary amounts of energy for pregnancy and lactation in the United Kingdom
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Summary of main results

1. Pregnancy
a. The principal pregnancy data are given in table 1. There was no significant difference in energy intake between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and both values agreed closely with those for the first trimester reported by

Smithells in Leeds (Brit. J. Nutr., 38:497 11977] ).

TABLE 1. Energy Intakes and Body-Weight Changes of 25 Mothers during the Second and Third Trimesters of Pregnancy (Mean S.D.)

Energy intake, 2nd trimester (kcal/day) 1,950 380
3rd trimester (kcal/day) 2,005 345
2nd & 3rd trimester (kcal/day) 1,978 350
Weight gain during pregnancy* (kg) 12.6 4 .0
Estimated maternal energy store (kcal) 38,662 28,570
Birth weight (kg) 3.31 0.35

* To the 36th week.

TABLE 2. Energy Intake and Milk Output of 17 Mothers at Different Stages of Lactation (Mean + S.D.)

Month of lactation Energy intake (kcal/day) Breast-milk output (9/24 hr)
2 2,278 458 715 148
3 2,300 470 773 140
4 2,380 408 755 136

b. Among the Cambridge mothers, there was no correlation between energy intake in the last trimester of pregnancy and birth weight (r = 0.01).

2. Lactation
a. Of the 25 mothers, 4 breast-fed for only 2 to 14 days, and another 4 for less than three months. Seventeen breast-fed at least up to the beginning of the fifth month, 11 exclusively, but the remaining 6 had by then introduced small amounts of other foods, which supplied only an average of 18 per cent of the babies' total energy intake.

b. The basic lactation data are summarized in table 2. Lactation was associated with an increase in food intake, but daily energy consumption was still 450 kcal less than the United Kingdom's DHSS Recommended Daily Amount. In the fourth month, there was little difference in energy intake among the 11 mothers who were exclusively breast-feeding (2,278 431 kcal [mean S.D.] ) and the six who were not (2,363 402 kcal), although the mean milk output of the former, 791 93 g/day, was higher than that of the mothers who were using mixed feeding, 688 186 g/day.

c. Figure 1 shows the relationship between dietary energy intake and milk output. The line of best fit (r = 0.76, p < 0.001) was significant(y curvilinear (p < 0.01). Mean milk outputs were not significantly different in mothers with energy intakes of 2,000 to 2,400 kcal/day and in those with intakes over 2,400 kcal-768 63 to 780 148 g/day, respectively. Energy intakes below 2,000 kcal were, however, associated with significantly lower milk outputs: 455 227 g/day (t-4.2, p < 0.001). Three of the mothers who could not breast-feed for more than two months had intakes below 1,720 kcal/day, and they had the three lowest milk outputs. Data for the fourth mother were omitted because she had been complying with advice to eat beyond her appetite-3,338 kcal/day-in an unsuccessful attempt to boost her milk output.



FIG 1. Relation between Maternal Energy Intake and Breast-Milk Output.

Most points are the mean of dietary energy and milk output measurements over 12 days during the second, third, and fourth months of lactation.

d. There was no important correlation between the average amount of milk that the individual mother produced during the first four months and her corresponding loss of weight (r = 0.20 NS). There was a significant correlation between weight loss and overall energy intake during lactation (r = 0.56, p < 0.02), and the relationship was even stronger (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) when weight change was related to the increase in energy intake that occurred when the mothers passed from pregnancy into lactation.



FIG. 2. Relation between Lactation Dietary Energy Increment and Weight Loss over the First Four Months Post Partum

Figure 2 predicts that at the DHSS recommended daily energy increment for lactation-600 kcal-mothers would lose none of their excess fat, while at the mean increment for the group studied, 281 kcal, the mothers lost weight at an average rate of 570 g/month. e. Figure 3 partly explains why some mothers ate so little extra during lactation. There was a high(y significant negative relationship (r = 0.73, p. < 0.001) between the extra food energy consumed during lactation and the amount of weight a mother had retained after her pregnancy.



FIG. 2. Relation between Weight retainrd after Pregnancy and Lactation Dietary Energy Increment