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close this bookProtein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data (UNU, 1981, 268 p.)
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View the documentProtein requirements for adults
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close this folderA note on energy utilization and its efficiency
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close this folderResearch papers: Protein requirements-adults, standard protocols
close this folderCapacity of the Chilean mixed diet to meet the protein and energy requirements of young adult males
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close this folderProtein requirements for young Colombian adults consuming local diets containing primarily animal or vegetable protein
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close this folderProtein requirements of young Chinese male adults for ordinary Chinese
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close this folderProtein requirements of young male adults with a rural Mexican diet
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close this folderThe evaluation of soy protein isolate alone and in combination with fish in adult Japanese men
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close this folderProtein requirements of adult Thai males
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close this folderEvaluation of the nutritive value of a rice-and-bean-based diet for agricultural migrant workers in Brazil
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close this folderProtein requirements-adults, other protocols
close this folderProtein quality of rice-and-bean diets with or without protein and energy supplements to estimate protein requirements in young adult humans
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close this folderProtein needs of young adult men fed common beans (phaseolus vulgaris) in combination with starch, plantain, maize, or rice
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses-adults
close this folderObligatory urinary and faecal nitrogen losses in young Chilean men fed two levels of dietary energy intake
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close this folderProtein absorption of adult men with intestinal helminthic parasites
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close this folderAbsorptive capacity of adult Guatemalan rural males living under different conditions of sanitation
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close this folderStudies of energy intakes, expenditures, and requirements in China
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close this folderObligatory and integumental nitrogen losses - children
close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses and factorial calculations of protein requirements of pre-school children
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close this folderIntegumental nitrogen losses of pre-school children with different levels and sources of dietary protein intake
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View the documentThe protein requirements of normal infants at the age of about one year: maintenance nitrogen requirements and obligatory nitrogen losses
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close this folderProtein requirements of Filipino children 20 to 29 months old consuming local diets
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close this folderProtein requirements of pre-school children: milk and soybean protein isolate
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close this folderCapacity of habitual Guatemalan diets to satisfy protein requirements of pre-school children with adequate dietary energy intakes
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close this folderEnergy requirements of pre-school children and effects of varying energy intakes on protein metabolism
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close this folderRecommended dietary energy intakes for the first six months of life
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close this folderProtein-energy requirements-adults
close this folderInterrelationships between effects of protein and energy intakes on nitrogen utilization in adult men
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close this folderRecommended dietary amounts of energy for pregnancy and lactation in the United Kingdom
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Experimental details

1. Subjects
Twenty-one male university students served as the subjects in these three series of experiments. They lived in a metabolic ward of our laboratory throughout the experiment. During the study, they continued their daily routine activities but were not allowed to do any hard physical work. Characteristics of the students are shown in table 1.

2. Diets
Each subject was given, successively, four levels of low-protein diets. Protein sources were cod fish (as a standard) for eight subjects, a soybean protein isolate (Supro) for five subjects, and a 50:50 mixture of both for eight subjects. Among these, five men received both the cod and mixed protein diets (see table 1). The fish and Supro were prepared as paste products (kamaboko) and fed in equal amounts three times a day. An example of the diet composition is shown in tables 2 and 3.

Each experimental period consisted of one day on a protein-free diet and ten days

TABLE 1. Characteristics of the Subjects

  Subject Age (years) Ht. (cm) Wt (kg) Chest circumference (cm) Subscapular skin-fold (mm) BMR
(kcal/kg)
Blood pressure (mmHg)
Fish A 21 171 63.3 86.1 13.5 22.7 125/75
B 20 164 56.5 84.6 7.5 25.6 135/82
C 19 171 58.1 84.8 8.2 27.4 145/90
D 24 171 69.8 97.6 15.2 21.2 120/75
E 22 179 64.3 90.0 9.5 22.4 115/75
F 22 172 63.2 90.8 11.8 22.5 130/85
G 20 168 57.6 83.4 11.0 24.5 120/70
K 22 166 71.6 91.8 18.8 25.6 125/84
Mean 21 170 63.1 88.6 11.9 24.0 127 80
S.D. 2 5 5.6 4.8 3.8 2.1 10 7
Supro M 21 173 68.2 92.0 7.0    
N 21 161 53.9 87.4 8.0    
O 28 164 54.6 89.8 7.0    
P 22 164 74.0 92.7 12.0    
Q 26 174 77.5 99.8 14.0    
Mean 24 167 65.6 92.3 9.6    
S.D. 3 6 10.9 4.7 3.2    
Mixed A 21 171 63.4 84.9 15.3 21.7 105/70
B 21 164 59.2 86.7 7.5 21.9 133/92
C 20 170 59.4 85.1 7.8 24.2 148/93
D 24 171 68.3 98.3 15.0 24.8 118/75
E 22 178 62.3 88.5 8.5 25.9 122/83
H 25 170 60.3 87.8 8.5 23.2 95/58
I 21 166 52.0 83.4 6.0 27.3 108/72
J 21 168 61.0 85.7 10.5 25.9 117/83
Mean 22 170 60.7 87.6 9.9 24.4 118 77
S.D. 2 4 4.6 4.6 3.5 2.0 17 12

 

TABLE 2. Diet Composition (Example). Subject: 65 kg; mixed protein 0.55 g/kg; energy 45 kcal/kg.

Materials g/day
Cod kamaboko * 155
Supro kamaboko* 107.5
Sugar 323
Cornstarch 300
Margarine 32
Corn oil 30
Agar 3
Baking powder 5
Salt 2.5
Mineral mixture 6
Vitamin mixture 3

* For composition of the kamaboko, see table 3. The nitrogen contents are as follows: Dried cod 89.6 mg/g; dried Supro 147.2 mg/g; cod kamabako 18.45 mg/g; Supro kamaboko 26.6 mg/g. Nitrogen intake was 2.86 g/day equally in cod and Supro.

TABLE 3. Composition of Kamaboko Products

 

Cod

Supro

  Parts % Parts %
Cod paste 100 77.2 - -
Supro 620 - - 20 17.5
NaCI 3 2.3 3 2.6
Potato starch 5 3 9 5 4 4
Sugar 1.5 1.2 1.5 1.3
Water 20 15.4 85 74.2

Total 129.5 100.0 114.5 100.0 on the experimental diet, followed by three days on a free choice (ad libitum) diet. Four periods were included in the study, with 0.35, 0.45, 0.55, and 0.65 9 protein/ kg/day fed to each man in a random order. Energy intake was constant for each individual to maintain body weight (mean + S.D. = 44.6 + 2.4 kcal/kg; range = 38.4 to 49.8).

3. Measurements and Indicators

a. Anthropometry: body weight, height, arm and leg circumferences, skin-fold thickness.
b. Blood analyses: RBC and WBC count, haemoglobin, haematocrit.
c. Plasma analyses: total proteins (Biuret), albumin (dye-binding, HABCA), urea (indophenol colour reaction), glucose (Somogyi-Nelson), triglyceride (Van Handel), total cholesterol (Zak-Hanly), Na and K (atomic absorption), SGOT and SGPT (Reitman-Frankel). d. Urine analyses: urea (urease-indophenol), ammonia (phenol-hypochlorite), creatinine (Folin-Wu), uric acid (phosphotungstic acid), Na and K (atomic absorption).
e. Nitrogen balance: total nitrogen in diets, faeces, and urine was measured with a semi-micro-Kjeldahl technique during the last five days of each ten-day period on the experimental diets.