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close this bookProtein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data (UNU, 1981, 268 p.)
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View the documentA summary analysis of the nitrogen-balance data
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View the documentProtein requirements for adults
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close this folderA note on energy utilization and its efficiency
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close this folderResearch papers: Protein requirements-adults, standard protocols
close this folderCapacity of the Chilean mixed diet to meet the protein and energy requirements of young adult males
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close this folderProtein requirements for young Colombian adults consuming local diets containing primarily animal or vegetable protein
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close this folderProtein requirements of young Chinese male adults for ordinary Chinese
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close this folderProtein requirements of young male adults with a rural Mexican diet
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close this folderThe evaluation of soy protein isolate alone and in combination with fish in adult Japanese men
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close this folderProtein requirements of adult Thai males
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close this folderEvaluation of the nutritive value of a rice-and-bean-based diet for agricultural migrant workers in Brazil
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close this folderProtein requirements-adults, other protocols
close this folderProtein quality of rice-and-bean diets with or without protein and energy supplements to estimate protein requirements in young adult humans
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close this folderProtein needs of young adult men fed common beans (phaseolus vulgaris) in combination with starch, plantain, maize, or rice
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses-adults
close this folderObligatory urinary and faecal nitrogen losses in young Chilean men fed two levels of dietary energy intake
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses of adult Thai males
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close this folderNitrogen absorption-adults
close this folderProtein absorption of adult men with intestinal helminthic parasites
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close this folderAbsorptive capacity of adult Guatemalan rural males living under different conditions of sanitation
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close this folderStudies of energy intakes, expenditures, and requirements in China
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close this folderObligatory and integumental nitrogen losses - children
close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses and factorial calculations of protein requirements of pre-school children
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close this folderIntegumental nitrogen losses of pre-school children with different levels and sources of dietary protein intake
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View the documentThe protein requirements of normal infants at the age of about one year: maintenance nitrogen requirements and obligatory nitrogen losses
close this folderProtein requirements-children
close this folderProtein requirements of Filipino children 20 to 29 months old consuming local diets
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close this folderProtein requirements of pre-school children: milk and soybean protein isolate
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close this folderCapacity of habitual Guatemalan diets to satisfy protein requirements of pre-school children with adequate dietary energy intakes
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close this folderEnergy requirements of pre-school children and effects of varying energy intakes on protein metabolism
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close this folderRecommended dietary energy intakes for the first six months of life
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close this folderProtein-energy requirements-adults
close this folderInterrelationships between effects of protein and energy intakes on nitrogen utilization in adult men
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close this folderRecommended dietary amounts of energy for pregnancy and lactation in the United Kingdom
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View the documentList of participants

Experimental details

1. Subjects
Thirteen adult male Thai students and laboratory assistants participated in the study. Table 1 shows their characteristics. They were healthy and well-nourished, based on medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, stool examination, chest x-ray, and a routine complete blood count.

2. Study Environment
The entire study was conducted at the clinical research ward (a metabolic unit) in Ramathibodi Hospital. Temperature and humidity were those typical of tropical countries.

3. Physical Activity
The subjects were allowed to continue their usual activities but not to participate in competitive, heavy sports.

TABLE 1. Initial Characteristics of 13 Adult Thai Male Subjects

Subject Age
(years)
Weight (kg) Height (cm)
M.P.* 24 45.0 166.0
V.D.* 25 55.0 166.5
S.R.* 23 56.5 169.0
S.S.* 21 67.5 164.5
M.K. 24 55.5 165.4
T.P. 21 51.9 161.0
G.P. 24 49.7 163.0
S.K. 27 50.5 171.0
S.R. 23 57.5 169.0
C.N. 23 59.0 163.0
A.P. 19 47.0 169.0
S.S. 21 69.0 164.0
M.P. 23 46.8 166.0
Mean 22.9 54.7 165.9
S.D. 2.1 7.4 2.9

* Also participated in study on obligatory nitrogen losses.

4. Duration of the Study
Five men were studied for 55 days with protein intakes of 0.20, 0.35, 0.50, and 0.65 g/kg/day. Eight men were studied for 41 days with protein intakes of 0.55, 0.70, and 0.85 g/kg/day, during three experimental periods, respectively.

Each experimental period was of 10 days, duration, preceded by 1 day on a protein free diet and followed by 3 days on a free-choice diet between experimental periods. The sequence of protein administration was assigned randomly.

TABLE 2. Multivitamin and Mineral Supplements (Tablets)*

Vitamins

Minerals

Vitamin A 2,500.U. Calcium 25 mg
Vitamin D2 250.U. Phosphorus 19.3 mg
Thiamine mononitrate 2.5 mg Iron 5 mg
Ribafiavin 2.5 mg Copper 0.75 mg
Nicocotinamide 10 mg iodine 0.05 mg
Pyridoxine hydrochloride 2.5 mg Manganese 0.5 mg
Folic acid 0.25 mg Magnesium 0.5 mg
Ca.pantothenate 5 mg Potassium 1 mg
Cyanocobalamin 0.001 mg Zinc 0.5 mg
Ascorbic acid 37.5 mg    
Vitamin E 1 mg    
Vitamin K 0.2 mg    

* Panvitan-M, manufactured by Takeda (Thailand, Ltd., Bangkok.

5. Diets
Hen's egg was the protein source, fed scrambled and mixed with mung bean noodles at lunch and supper. The daily energy intake was kept constant at about 45 kcal/kg/day. Fat provided approximately 30 per cent of the daily energy intake. Vitamin and mineral tables (see table 2) were given twice each day. Water intake was provided ad libitum, but the volume was recorded daily.

6. Indicators and Measurements
a. The total nitrogen in diet, urine, and faeces was measured by a calorimetric semi-automated procedure (Munro and Fleck, Mammalian Protein Metabolism, vol. 3,1969). True nitrogen balance was calculated for urinary nitrogen during the last five days and for faecal nitrogen during the last eight days of each period. Fat in food and faecal samples was measured by Van de Kamer's method. Food and faecal energy were measured by bomb calorimetry (Parr Adiabatic Calorimeter). b. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was measured daily and at the end of each dietary period with a respirometer (closed circuit). c. Body weight was recorded daily. d. Analyses of serum: Total proteins and albumin; urea nitrogen; and aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) were determined at the beginning and at the end of each dietary period.