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close this bookProtein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data (UNU, 1981, 268 p.)
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close this folderA note on energy utilization and its efficiency
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close this folderResearch papers: Protein requirements-adults, standard protocols
close this folderCapacity of the Chilean mixed diet to meet the protein and energy requirements of young adult males
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close this folderProtein requirements for young Colombian adults consuming local diets containing primarily animal or vegetable protein
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close this folderProtein requirements of young Chinese male adults for ordinary Chinese
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close this folderThe evaluation of soy protein isolate alone and in combination with fish in adult Japanese men
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close this folderProtein requirements of adult Thai males
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close this folderEvaluation of the nutritive value of a rice-and-bean-based diet for agricultural migrant workers in Brazil
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close this folderProtein requirements-adults, other protocols
close this folderProtein quality of rice-and-bean diets with or without protein and energy supplements to estimate protein requirements in young adult humans
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close this folderProtein needs of young adult men fed common beans (phaseolus vulgaris) in combination with starch, plantain, maize, or rice
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses-adults
close this folderObligatory urinary and faecal nitrogen losses in young Chilean men fed two levels of dietary energy intake
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close this folderProtein absorption of adult men with intestinal helminthic parasites
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close this folderAbsorptive capacity of adult Guatemalan rural males living under different conditions of sanitation
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close this folderStudies of energy intakes, expenditures, and requirements in China
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close this folderObligatory and integumental nitrogen losses - children
close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses and factorial calculations of protein requirements of pre-school children
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close this folderIntegumental nitrogen losses of pre-school children with different levels and sources of dietary protein intake
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View the documentThe protein requirements of normal infants at the age of about one year: maintenance nitrogen requirements and obligatory nitrogen losses
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close this folderProtein requirements of Filipino children 20 to 29 months old consuming local diets
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close this folderEnergy requirements of pre-school children and effects of varying energy intakes on protein metabolism
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close this folderRecommended dietary energy intakes for the first six months of life
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close this folderProtein-energy requirements-adults
close this folderInterrelationships between effects of protein and energy intakes on nitrogen utilization in adult men
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close this folderRecommended dietary amounts of energy for pregnancy and lactation in the United Kingdom
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Summary of main results

1. Energy Intake
During period 1, the men received 46 i 4 kcal/kg/day, and during period 2, their energy intake was increased to 58 i 4 kcal/kg/day.

2. Anthropometry
Table 3 shows the anthropometric data obtained during the study. All subjects except one lost weight. The remaining anthropometric indices did not show significant changes.

3. Urinary Nitrogen Excretion
Figure 1 and tables 4A and 4B show the daily urinary nitrogen losses. It should be noted that subject E.R. on day 6 did not comply with the experimental protocol and exercised heavily. We eliminated the abnormally high value obtained that day and, for computational purposes, replaced it with the mean obtained from days 5 and 7. A kinetic evaluation of the data is presented in Table 4A. Subject S.L. did not reach stability by day 10 and his data were not included to calculate the mean parameters of the equations. The asymptotically derived urinary nitrogen loss (P3) after stability had been reached was 35.8 mg N/kg/day. The mean time to stabilitY (tS) was 6.5 days. Data from subject H.R. on day 15 and from E.R. on day 13 were not included in the pooled regression analyses and daily means because these abnormally elevated values corresponded to days on which the conditions of the experimental protocol were not fully met. The regression analysis of nitrogen loss versus days with excess energy showed a trend toward decline in nitrogen loss.

TABLE 3. Anthropometric Measurements of Subjects Fed a Nitrogen-Free Diet at Two Levels of Energy Intake

 

Days

Variable

1

10

18

Height, cm

169.8 4.8*

169.8 4.8

169.8 4.8

Weight, kg

64.4 6.4

63.9 6.1

63.6 6.4

Waist, cm

82.385.3

81.81 5.18

80.885.07

Gluteal circumference, cm

91.19 3.40

90.63 3.68

89.88 3.81

Mid-upper right arm circumference, cm

28.94 2.29

28.54 2.34

28.19 2.34

Mid-upper left arm circumference, cm

28.25 2.55

27.94 2.44

27.69 2.50

Right triceps skin-fold, mm

7.5 2.5

7.5 2.6

7.3 2.6

Left triceps skin-fold, mm

7.6 2.6

7.4 2.6

7 3 2.6

Right subscapular skin-fold, mm

11.9 3.5

11.7 3.4

11.5 3.3

Left subscapular skin-fold, mm

11.8 3.3

11.6 3.2

11.4 3.2

* Mean S.D.

4. Other Urinary Excretions
Table 5 shows the mean urinary creatinine, urea nitrogen, and total nitrogen lost daily during the last five days of each period.

TABLE 4A. Kinetic Analysis of Daily Nitrogen Excretion in Subjects Fed a Nitrogen-Free Diet for Ten Days. Dietary energy intake: 46 kcal/kg/day.

Day J.A. J.B. O.G. S.L.* H.R. E.R. R.E. N.A. Mean S.D.

(mg N/kg/day)

1 115.7 134.4 100.8 92.2 117.7 161.0 82.5 94.6 115.2 26.3
2 76.3 68.4 69.7 97.6 81.6 92.9 56.2 67.4 73.2 11.7
3 53.2 54.6 44.5 57.9 69.3 74.3 44.4 54.4 56.4 11.5
4 44.9 57.3 42.9 54.9 65.0 52.1 42.4 41.5 49.4 9.0
5 41.6 47.3 31.0 56.3 43.9 77.3 37.8 44.1 46.1 14.7
6 36.3 37.2 31.0 51.6 43.5 65.1* 32.5 34.0 40.0 11.8
7 39.9 36.3 26.7 53.4 43.9 54.1 32.7 28.7 37.5 9.5
8 29.8 32.4 32.7 54 4 45 7 54.1 27.4 33.9 36.6 9.7
9 34.8 29.0 24.2 21.4 43.5 35.2 27.4 30.0 32.0 6.4
10 31.6 33.8 25.2   65.0 33.9 27.4 27.4 34.9 13.7
P1 159.0 229.5 135.8 92.0 136.8 244.4 93.3 106.9 158.0 58.2
P2 0.6591 0.8488 0.5996 0.1500 0.6668 0.7885 0.5454 0.4819 0.65570.1295
P3 33.46 36.19 26.27 13.29 47.50 49.91 28.44   35.77 9.47
S.D. 1.369 3.188 1.731 49.72 4.109 5.867 1.507 1.920  
ts 7.2 5.0 7.3 * 5.3 4.7 7.6 8.3 6.5 1.4

 

* Subject S,L did not reach a stable nitrogen loss during this period. His data were not included in the means. P1 and P3 are expressed in mg N/kg/day; P2 is given in days—1; ts stands for days needed for stability.

TABLE 4B, Daily Nitrogen Excretion in Subjects Fed a Nitrogen-Free Diet with Excess Energy. Dietary energy intake: 58 4 kcal/kg/day.

Day J.A. J.B. O.G. S.L. H.R. E.R. R.E. N.A. Mean S.D.

(mg N/kg/day)

11 36.6 35.1 31.1 42.7 48.3 51.8 27.6 32.7 38.2 8.5
12 36.6 * 26.7 43.9 48.8 30.0 27.7 30.9 34.9 8.5
13 35.1 32.6 23.7 57.8 42.3 90.7** 27.5 28.9 35.4 11.5
14 33.5 30.3 29.5 46.4 50.3 46.1 31.6 28.9 37.1 8.9
15 30.2 31.5 26.6 44.8 69.7** 46.0 30.3 31.6 34.4 7.7
16 29.2 27.6 25.1 49.4 36.3 44.6 27 6 32.9 34.1 8.8
17 35.4 26.3 20.8 31.0 25.6 29.7 26.3 31.5 28.3 4.5
18 37.3 22.7 17.9 *** 27.2 *** 19.7 27.6 25.4 7.0

* Sample was lost.
** Data not included in the calculation because they deviated from expected values. Regression equations for (a) the complete set of data, and (b) for days 15 through 18: (a) v = - 1.50x + 55.4, r = - 0.39, p < 0.01; (b) - 3.31 x +8.52, r = - 0.46, p < 0.05.
*** Subjects did not complete study



FIG. 1. Obligatory Nitrogen Excretion in Chilean Young Adult Males Fed Two Levels of Dietary Energy Intake

5. Faecal Nitrogen Excretion
Table 5 also shows the mean daily faecal nitrogen excretion for both experimental periods.

6. Measurements in Serum
Table 6 summarizes the biochemical measurements obtained initially and at the end of each period.

7. Factorial Calculation
Table 7 shows the factorial calculation of mean protein requirements. Adding 30 per cent for individual variability as suggested in 1973 by FAD/WHO, the safe level of protein intake would be 0.62 g/kg/day.

TABLE 5. Obligatory Nitrogen Losses in Young Male Subjects Fed a Protein-Free Diet at Two Levels of Energy Intake

  Days 6 to 10 46 4 kcal/kg/day ( g/day ) Days 14 to 18 58 4 kcal/kg/day
(g/day )
Paired t test p<
Creatinine 1.33 + 0.25* 1.22 + 0.29 N.S.
Urea nitrogen 1.41 0.68 1.54 0.46 N.S.
Total urinary nitrogen 2.365 0.477 2.107 0.388 0.01
Faecal nitrogen 1.029 + 0.194** 0.562 + 0.141 *** 0.001

* Mean S.D.
** Faecal nitrogen losses for days 1 to 10.
*** Faecal nitrogen losses for days 11 to 18.

TABLE 6. Plasma Biochemical Measurements for Subjects Consuming a Nitrogen-Free Diet at Two Levels of Energy Intake

 

Day of study

ANOVA

 

1

10

18

P

L.S.D.*

Protein (g/dl)

7.4 0.5

6.9 0.5

6.9 0.6

N.S.

-

Albumin (g/dl)

5.0 0.3

4.6 0.3

4.2 0.3

<.001

0.61

Glucose (mg/dl)

81.4 8.7

78.3 8.5

86.6 6.4

N.S.

-

Urea (mg/dl)

24.9 5.2

10 2 2.6

12.5 3.9

< 001

7.7

Urea N (mg/dl)

11.6 3.4

4.7 1.2

5.8 1.8

< 001

3.6

SGOT (Karmen units/dl)

28.8 11.0

23.1 10.9

38.6 11.0

<.05

11.4

SGPT (Karmen units/dl)

17.1 10.2

13.9 9.6

15.4 14.5

N.S.

-

Creatinine (mg/dl)

0.65 0.1

0.79 0.1

0.72 0.1

<.05

0.01

Triglycerides(mg/dl)

52.825.1

44.911.5

49.1 12.5

N.S.

-

Cholesterol (mg/dl)

174.9 38.1

160.8 42.2

134.6 14.3

N.S.

-

* Least significant difference to the indicated p value.

TABLE 7. Factorial Nitrogen Losses for Young Males Consuming a Nitrogen-Free Diet

Subject

P3a

Urinary nitrogeb

Faecal nitrogenc

Total obligatory nitrogen lossesd

Correction factor 1.3

(mg N/kg/day)

J.A.

33.5

34.5

13.9

53.4

69.4

J.B.

36.2

33.7

16.0

54.7

71.1

O.G.

26.3

28.0

18.9

51.9

67.5

S.L.

13.3

45.0

14.0

64.0

83.2

H.R.

47.5

48.3

18.0

71.3

92.7

E.R.

49.9

48.5

20.2

73.7

95.8

R.E.

28.4

29.5

13.7

48.2

62.6

N.A.

28.6

30.8

13.7

49.5

64.4

Mean

35.8

36.2

16.1

58.4

75.8

S.D.

9.5

8.6

2.6

9.9

12.9

FAO/WHO (1973)  

37

12

54

70

  1. Urinary nitrogen loss (mp N/kg/day) after asymptotic stabilization,
  2. Obligatory urinary nitrogen losses for days 6 to 10.
  3. Obligatory faecal nitrogen losses for days 1 to 10.
  4. Assuming 5 mg N/kg/day for integumental and miscellaneous losses.