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close this bookProtein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data (UNU, 1981, 268 p.)
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View the documentA summary analysis of the nitrogen-balance data
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close this folderA note on energy utilization and its efficiency
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close this folderResearch papers: Protein requirements-adults, standard protocols
close this folderCapacity of the Chilean mixed diet to meet the protein and energy requirements of young adult males
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close this folderProtein requirements for young Colombian adults consuming local diets containing primarily animal or vegetable protein
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close this folderProtein requirements of young Chinese male adults for ordinary Chinese
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close this folderProtein requirements of young male adults with a rural Mexican diet
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close this folderThe evaluation of soy protein isolate alone and in combination with fish in adult Japanese men
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close this folderProtein requirements of adult Thai males
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close this folderEvaluation of the nutritive value of a rice-and-bean-based diet for agricultural migrant workers in Brazil
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close this folderProtein requirements-adults, other protocols
close this folderProtein quality of rice-and-bean diets with or without protein and energy supplements to estimate protein requirements in young adult humans
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close this folderProtein needs of young adult men fed common beans (phaseolus vulgaris) in combination with starch, plantain, maize, or rice
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses-adults
close this folderObligatory urinary and faecal nitrogen losses in young Chilean men fed two levels of dietary energy intake
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close this folderProtein absorption of adult men with intestinal helminthic parasites
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close this folderAbsorptive capacity of adult Guatemalan rural males living under different conditions of sanitation
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close this folderStudies of energy intakes, expenditures, and requirements in China
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses and factorial calculations of protein requirements of pre-school children
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close this folderIntegumental nitrogen losses of pre-school children with different levels and sources of dietary protein intake
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View the documentThe protein requirements of normal infants at the age of about one year: maintenance nitrogen requirements and obligatory nitrogen losses
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close this folderProtein requirements of Filipino children 20 to 29 months old consuming local diets
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close this folderEnergy requirements of pre-school children and effects of varying energy intakes on protein metabolism
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close this folderRecommended dietary energy intakes for the first six months of life
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close this folderProtein-energy requirements-adults
close this folderInterrelationships between effects of protein and energy intakes on nitrogen utilization in adult men
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close this folderRecommended dietary amounts of energy for pregnancy and lactation in the United Kingdom
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Summary of main results

1. Soldiers
Table 5 summarizes the results of the five consecutive three-day balance periods. One man's data were excluded from Balances ill and IV because he had diarrhoea.

TABLE 4. Amount of Food Prepared and Offered Daily in the Metabolic Unit, in Grams

Cooked beans* 307
Fried beans* 40
Corn tortilla 570
Rice 200
Bread 45
Sweet rolls 66
Meat 1 07
Cheese 1 09
Chayote** 100
Squash 68
Carrots 66
Sugar 37

Total energy 2,800 kcal
Total protein 95 9 = 380 kcal (13.6% energy)
Total protein 95 9 = 380 kcal (13.6% energy)
Total fat 35 9 = 315 kcal (11.2 % energy)

* Black beans: Phaseolus vulgaris.
** Chayote: Sechium edule.

  1. There was a clear tendency to gain weight through tout the 15 days. This suggests that energy intake was in excess of expenditure.
  2. Stool weight was higher in the first balance period. This might be due to faecal residues of the food ingested before coming into the metabolic unit and suggests that two days are not enough for "adaptation" to the new diets.
  3. Apparent absorption of nitrogen and of total energy was also lower during the first balance period. This is probably related to the larger faecal excretion in that balance period.
  4. Urinary nitrogen excretion was constant throughout the five balance periods.
  5. Nitrogen balance was lower in Balance I than in Balances II and IV. It did not differ from the overall mean balance of Balances II to V.

TABLE 5. Guatemalan Soldiers: Results of Metabolic-Balance Studies in Five Consecutive Three-Day Periods (Mean + S.D.)

Measurement

Three-day balance periods

Average of balance periods II-V Least significant difference**
I (13)* II (13) III (12) IV (12) V (13)
Body weight, kga 62.27 3.08 62.77 3.02 63.30 2.91 62.47 2.98 63.21 2.94 62.94 2.89 0.17
Stool weight, g/3 days 789 303c 627 291b 633 255b 660 273b 630 261b 636 261b 60
Nitrogen, mg/kg/day  
Intake 289 14 285 14 286 13 286 14 285 13 285 13  
Faecal 60 16C 40 20b 43 20b 46 20b 37 14b 41 18b 11
Urinary 200 27 193 21 213 33 194 29 216 23 204 28  
Apparent 30 20b 52 22c 30 31b 47 24c 32 25b 40 27 15
Apparent absorption, % 79 5b 86 6c 85 6c 84 6c 88 5c 86 6c 3.8
Energy, kcal/kg/day  
Intake 50 3 50 2 49 2 50 2 49 2 49 3  
Faecal 6 3c 4 2b 4 2 4 1b 4 2b 4 2b 1.4
Apparent absorption, % 89 5b 93 4c 92 3 92 2c 93 5c 92 4c 3.0
Fat, mg/kg/day  
Intake 556 27 583 28 515 23 586 28 547 25 558 38  
Faecal 87 32 88 34 80 28 71 27 68 31 70 32  
Apparent absorption,% 84 6 85 3 84 5 88 5 88 6 86 6  

* Number of men in parentheses. ** L.S.D. shown only when groups differed by analysis of variance, p < 0.05.
a Linear tendency to gain weight with time. b Lower than values with superscript c, P <0.05..

2. Rural Men

  1. There were some differences between Balances I and II but they were not consistent throughout the four years of the investigation. Based on these findings, on the studies in the soldiers, and on the fact that some men were offered less than 2,800 kcal of diet in Balance I of 1974, the data from the second Balance period were used for comparisons.
  2. There were no consistent differences between 1974, 1975, and 1976 in FA or between 1974 and 1975 in GU. Absorption of nutrients was higher in GU in 1976 than in other years (see tables 6 and 7).
  3. There were no differences between the "longitudinal" and "non-longitudinal" groups.
  4. Table 6 summarizes the results of the second Balance periods in 1974 and 1976. Table 7 shows the differences in absorption of nutrients and in nitrogen balance between the two communities and between them and the soldiers.
  5. The differences in nitrogen balance seem to be mainly due to the high urinary nitrogen excretion in GU in 1976. f. The men from FA had a tendency for larger stool volumes throughout the four years of the study than those of men from GU and MZ, although the differences were not always statistically significant.
  6. The men from FA were thinner and weighed less. Consequently, dietary intakes per unit of body weight tended to be higher in them than in GU and MZ men.
  7. The apparent absorption of nutrients was lower in 1974 and 1975 in both villages than in MZ. In 1976, however, the men from GU absorbed as well or better than those from MZ men.
  8. All men from GU and FA had between one and seven intestinal parasite species at the metabolicbalance studies (A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, hookworm, Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia tamblia, Enterococcus coli, Entamoeba histolytica). All were asymptomatic, and ova counts suggested mild-tomoderate infections. There was no correlation between apparent absorption of nitrogen total energy and the number of parasite species in the host's intestine.

TABLE 6. Guatemalan Rural Men: Results of Metabolic-Balance Studies after Three Days in the Metabolic Unit (Balance I I, Longitudinal Group) and Comparison with Soldiersa

Measurement

FA—1974
n=28b

GU—1974
n=34

FA—1976
n=28

GU—1976
n=34

MZ—11
n=13

Body weight, kg

50.35 5.67c

58.86 10.39

51.02 5.51

60.69 10.53

62.77 3.02

Stool weight, g/3 days

1,056 442

776 238

928 442

759 229

627 291

Nitrogen, mg/kg/day          
Intake

324 46

300 62

329 42

303 49

285 14

Faecal

83 32

70 29

71 24

44 20

40 20

Urinary

194 40

171 51

220 37

225 46

193 21

Apparent balance

59 62

79 25

34 39

31 26

52 22

Apparent absorption, %

75 8

77 8

78 9

84 6

86 6

Energy, kcal/kg/day          
Intake

57 8

53 10

56 6

49 8

50 2

Faecal

7 3

5 2

6 3

3 1

4 2

Apparent absorption, %

88 5

90 3

89 6

95 2

93 4

Fat, mg/kg/day          
Intake

702 78

589 106

574 60

573 89

583 28

Faecal

150 51

115 45

96 46

54 26

87 34

Apparent absorption, %

79 6

81 6

84 7

91 7

853

  1. Men from villages FA and GU in 1974 and 1976, and soldiers from MZ (Balance 11).
  2. Number of men.
  3. Means S.D. Results of comparisons betueen groups shown in table 7.

TABLE 7. Comparisons between the Second Metabolic-Balance Periods Rural Men (FA and GU,1974 and 1976) and Soldiers (Mz)a

 

FA-1974 Compared with

GU-1974 Compared with

GU-1976 Compared with

GU   FA GU   GU FA   FA
1974 MZ 1976 1976 MZ 1976 1976 MZ 1976
Stool weight, 9/3 days **b ** - ** - - - - -
Apparent absorption  
Nitrogen - ** - ** ** ** - - **
Total energy - ** - ** ** ** - - **
Fat - ** ** ** ** ** - *** **
Nitrogen balance, mg/kg/day  
Intake - ** - - - - * - *
Faecal - ** - ** ** ** - - *
Urinary - - ** ** - ** ** * -
Balance - - - * ** ** ** * -

a From data shown in table 6.
b Mean values were higher ( ) or lower ( ) based on student's grouped ''t" test with p < 0.05 (*) or 0.01 (**).