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close this bookProtein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data (UNU, 1981, 268 p.)
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View the documentStatistical considerations in the estimation of protein requirements
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close this folderDiscussions and recommendations of the task forces
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close this folderA note on energy utilization and its efficiency
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close this folderResearch papers: Protein requirements-adults, standard protocols
close this folderCapacity of the Chilean mixed diet to meet the protein and energy requirements of young adult males
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close this folderProtein requirements for young Colombian adults consuming local diets containing primarily animal or vegetable protein
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close this folderProtein requirements of young Chinese male adults for ordinary Chinese
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close this folderProtein requirements of young male adults with a rural Mexican diet
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close this folderThe evaluation of soy protein isolate alone and in combination with fish in adult Japanese men
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close this folderProtein requirements of adult Thai males
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close this folderEvaluation of the nutritive value of a rice-and-bean-based diet for agricultural migrant workers in Brazil
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close this folderProtein requirements-adults, other protocols
close this folderProtein quality of rice-and-bean diets with or without protein and energy supplements to estimate protein requirements in young adult humans
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close this folderProtein needs of young adult men fed common beans (phaseolus vulgaris) in combination with starch, plantain, maize, or rice
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses-adults
close this folderObligatory urinary and faecal nitrogen losses in young Chilean men fed two levels of dietary energy intake
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses of adult Thai males
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close this folderNitrogen absorption-adults
close this folderProtein absorption of adult men with intestinal helminthic parasites
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close this folderAbsorptive capacity of adult Guatemalan rural males living under different conditions of sanitation
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close this folderStudies of energy intakes, expenditures, and requirements in China
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close this folderObligatory and integumental nitrogen losses - children
close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses and factorial calculations of protein requirements of pre-school children
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close this folderIntegumental nitrogen losses of pre-school children with different levels and sources of dietary protein intake
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View the documentThe protein requirements of normal infants at the age of about one year: maintenance nitrogen requirements and obligatory nitrogen losses
close this folderProtein requirements-children
close this folderProtein requirements of Filipino children 20 to 29 months old consuming local diets
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close this folderProtein requirements of pre-school children: milk and soybean protein isolate
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close this folderProtein absorption of pre-school children with intestinal helminth parasites
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close this folderUse of corn-bean mixtures to satisfy protein and energy requirements of preschool children
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close this folderProtein-energy requirements-children
close this folderCapacity of habitual Guatemalan diets to satisfy protein requirements of pre-school children with adequate dietary energy intakes
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close this folderEnergy requirements of pre-school children and effects of varying energy intakes on protein metabolism
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close this folderRecommended dietary energy intakes for the first six months of life
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close this folderProtein-energy requirements-adults
close this folderInterrelationships between effects of protein and energy intakes on nitrogen utilization in adult men
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close this folderRecommended dietary amounts of energy for pregnancy and lactation in the United Kingdom
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Summary of main results

1. Basal Energy Expenditure of Young Men
The mean value obtained from 19 college students 20 to 30 years old was 0.63 kcal/m2 of body surface/minute.

2. Energy Expenditure of College Students
Table 1 shows the energy cost of different activities of college students. The mean total energy expenditures of 16 men and 6 women were 2,420 and 2,170 kcal/day, respectively.

The make-up of the dietary energy absorbed by 9 men was 12.0 per cent from proteins, 27.9 per cent from fats, and 60.1 per cent from carbohydrates. Based on their non-protein respiratory quotient and urinary nitrogen, the different sources of expended energy were 12.3 per cent from proteins, 28.8 per cent from fats, and 58.9 per cent from carbohydrates.

3. Energy Expenditures of Iron and Steel Workers and of Coal Miners
Tables 2 and 3 give the mean energy expenditure of men engaged in these physically demanding jobs. The figures include the pauses and resting periods during the eight-hour shift. The average cost (kcal/min/m2) of the specific activities performed by the men varied widely. For example, among iron and steel workers, energy costs ranged from 1.67 while putting core into moulds and 1.71 when walking in the furnace area, to 4.93 during heavy hand-rolling. Among coal miners, the energy costs ranged from 1.60 while packing holes with explosives and 1.75 while drilling rocks, to 4.43 when climbing in the wind tunnels, and 5.09 carrying trestles in such tunnels.

4. Dietary Intakes of Workers
Table 4 gives the mean energy and protein intakes of labourers engaged in different jobs in several provinces of China.

5. Energy Expenditures of Peasants
Tables 5 and 6 give the energy costs of work-related activities for male and female peasants. Total energy expenditure varies cyclically, being greater during the summer harvest and spring digging. Table 7 gives time allocations in the various seasons, and table 8 gives some of the corresponding total daily energy expenditures of men and women engaged in different agricultural chores.

TABLE 1. Energy Cost of Different Activities of College Students

Sedentary Activity Energy expenditure
(kcal/m /mm)
Lying at ease 0.65 (0.58 - 0.74)*
Sleeping 0.73 (0.69 - 0.82)
Snooze; resting between classes;  
reading Iying down 0.79 (0.65 - 0.89)
Sitting (watching movie; watching demonstration;  
writing; reading; studying; attending meeting) 0.82 (0.71 - 1.08)
Taking examinations 0.92 (0.73 - 1.02)
   
Writing on blackboard; standing and listening 0.98 (0.88 - 1.09)
Working in laboratory 1.00 (0.71 - 1.19)
Cleaning window 1.98 ( - )
Dressing or undressing 2.20 (2.06 - 2.23)
Making bed 2.26 (2.20 - 2.32)
Washing clothes 2.36 (2.17 - 2.56)
Moderate Standing and conducting singing 2.64 (2.37 - 2.92)
Ordinary morning drill 2.65 (2.22 - 3.80)
Walking 2.70 (2.33 - 3.30)
Cleaning floor 2.72 (2.62 - 2.81)
Broadcast drill 2.77 (2.56 - 2.98)
Scrubbing floor 2.82 ( - )
Dancing 4.03 (3.31-4.80)
Playing baseball 4.03 (3.91 - .1 5)
Vigorous Playing volleyball 4.07 (3.82 - 4.32)
Running 5.30 (3.85 - 6.75)
Playing basketball 5.78 (5.00 - 7.92)
Playing football 5.96 (5.33 - 6.60)

* Mean, with range between parentheses.

TABLE 2. Energy Expenditure of Iron and Steel Workers in an Eight-Hour Shift

Type of work

Working time
(%)*

Energy cost of work

Total energy
expenditure
(kcal/man/8 hrs)

   

(kcal/m/min)

(kcal/min)

 
Furnaceman

55

1.86

2.92

1402

Ore-carrying worker

72

3.06

5.28

2534

Ore-sieving worker

60

2.71

4.97

2386

Blast furnaceman

72

2.97

4.82

2314

Sintering (non-mechanized)

80

2.69

4.42

2122

Open-hearth furnace

42

1.77

2.84

1363

Electric open-hearth

40

1.78

2.86

1373

Coke-oven man (mechanized)

70

1.95

2.95

1416

Coke-oven man (semi-mechanized)

60

1.60

2.41

1157

Rolling worker

55

1.66

2.71

1301

Rolling worker

46

1.52

2.36

1138

Tube-casting foundry work  
Moulder

75

1.60

2.58

1238

Core layer

46

1.40

2.25

1080

Fettling work

59

1.92

2.89

1387

Fettling work

63

1.88

3.21

1541

Chassis-making

74

2.12

3.40

1637

Core removal

82

1.93

3.10

1488

* The remaining time was spent in pauses and rest periods.

TABLE 3. Energy Expenditure during Coal Mining in an Eight-Hour Shift

Type of work

Working time
(%)

Energy cost of work

Total energy expenditure
(kcal/man/8 furs)

   

(kcal/m/min)

(kcal/min)

 
Coal miner

56

2.21

3.45

1655

Coal-timbering worker

56

2.28

3.55

1702

Coal-drilling worker

64

1.93

3.01

1444

Blasting worker

82

2.35

3.66

1756

Tunnelling worker

58

1.81

2.92

1403

Rock-transferring worker

48

1.95

3.63

1513

Timbering worker

63

2.09

3.35

1607

* The remaining time was spent in pauses and rests.

TABLE 4. Dietary Energy and Protein Intakes of Workers

Type of work Location Energy (kcal) Protein (g)
Iron and steel work Wuhan 4028 125
Iron end steer work Hunan 3368 110
Iron and steel work Anshan 3921 132
Electric power industry Chonguing 3112 105
Coal mining Anhui 3713 96
Iron factory Hangzhou 3347 80
Machine factory Guangxi 3168 86
Silk plant Hangzhou 2885 89
Building worker Beijing 3614 108
Mining Guangdong 3950 86

TABLE 5. Energy Cost of Activities Performed by Male Peasants during Work

Activity kcal/m2 /min
Resting 1.02
Loading corn onto carts 1.30
Pulling radishes by hand 1.54
Winnowing beans 1.54
Picking corn 1.57
Mowing beans 1.82
Binding corn stalks 1.89
Picking potatoes with hoe 1.97
Weeding with hoe 2.03
Walking 2.13 0.39
Transplanting rice seedlings 2.28 0.31
Spreading manure 2.30
Picking corn roots with hoe 2.51
Raking the soil 2.71
Weeding seedling fields 2.72 0.33
Mowing wheat 2.79 0.20
Picking radishes with hoe 2.93
Light ploughing 2.94 0.18
Carrying water in pails 3.19 0.14
Weeding rice fields (shallow) 3 33 0 54
Carrying manure in holder on shoulder 3 50
Shovelling earth 3.51 0.08
Planting fields 3.91 0.35
Weeding rice fields (deep) 4.12 0.42

TABLE 6. Energy Cost of Activities Performed by Female Peasant during Work

Activity kcal/m2 /min
Resting 0.88 0.28
Spreading fertilizer (standing) 1.62 0.22
Mowing wheat 1.79 0.06
Weeding rice field 1.91 0.16
Walking 2.00 0.29
Spreading manure 2.95 0.14
Spreading fertilizer (stooping) 3.04 0.21
Thinning young shoots 3.16 0.33
Pulling up wheat 3.30 0.21
Shovelling earth 3.44 0.14
Planting fields 3.86 0.63

TABLE 7. Distribution of Daily Time in Hours

 

Spring and autumn

Summer

Winter

Summer harvest

Deep digging

Type of work

Part-
time labour

Full-
time labour

Full-
time labour

Part-
time labour

Part-
time labour

Full-
time labour

Part-
time labour

Full-
time labour

Part-
time labour

Full-
time labour

Productive labour

7.5

8.25

6.0

7.0

6.0

7.0

9.0

11.5

8.2

10.75

Sleeping

8.5

8.5

9.0

9.0

10.0

10.0

8.5

6.5

9.0

7.5

Taking meal

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.0

1.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

Sewing

0.5

0.0

1.0

0.0

1.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Cleaning street

0.25

0.0

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.0

0.25

0.0

Rest

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.5

1.5

Reading and attending meeting

1.5

1.5

1.0

1.0

2.0

2.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Toilet

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Dressing and undressing

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Chatting

0.5

0.5

1.0

1.5

0.75

1.0

0.25

0.25

0.5

0.0

Washing clothes

0.5

0.0

1.0

0.0

0.25

0.0

0.25

0.0

0.25

0.0

Carrying water

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Walking

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.5

0.5

1.0

1.5

1.5

1.0

1.0

TABLE 8. Average Daily Energy Expenditure (kcal) of Male and Female Peasants in Spring, Fall, and Summer

Type of work

Average daily energy expenditure
in spring and fall

Average daily energy expenditure
in summer

Male

Female

Male

Female

Full-time

labour

Full-time

labour

Part-time

labour

Full-time

labour

Full-time

labour

Part-time

labour

Light ploughing

3,898

-

-

3,691

-

-

Spreading

-

3,408

3,310

-

3,310

3,055

Thinning young shoots

-

3,647

3,445

-

3,365

3,102

Spreading fertilizer (stooping)

-

3,563

3,369

-

3,437

3,163

Planting field

4,681

4,189

3,938

4,356

3,897

3,558

Shovelling earth

4,343

3,886

3,663

4,069

3,640

3,337

Mowing

-

-

-

4,538

3,003

2,740

Pulling up wheat

-

-

-

-

4,568

4,008

Deep digging

4,954

4,435

3,812

-

-

-