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close this bookProtein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data (UNU, 1981, 268 p.)
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View the documentStatistical considerations in the estimation of protein requirements
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View the documentProtein requirements for adults
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close this folderA note on energy utilization and its efficiency
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close this folderResearch papers: Protein requirements-adults, standard protocols
close this folderCapacity of the Chilean mixed diet to meet the protein and energy requirements of young adult males
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close this folderProtein requirements for young Colombian adults consuming local diets containing primarily animal or vegetable protein
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close this folderProtein requirements of young Chinese male adults for ordinary Chinese
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close this folderProtein requirements of young male adults with a rural Mexican diet
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close this folderThe evaluation of soy protein isolate alone and in combination with fish in adult Japanese men
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close this folderProtein requirements of adult Thai males
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close this folderEvaluation of the nutritive value of a rice-and-bean-based diet for agricultural migrant workers in Brazil
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close this folderProtein requirements-adults, other protocols
close this folderProtein quality of rice-and-bean diets with or without protein and energy supplements to estimate protein requirements in young adult humans
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close this folderProtein needs of young adult men fed common beans (phaseolus vulgaris) in combination with starch, plantain, maize, or rice
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses-adults
close this folderObligatory urinary and faecal nitrogen losses in young Chilean men fed two levels of dietary energy intake
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close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses of adult Thai males
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close this folderNitrogen absorption-adults
close this folderProtein absorption of adult men with intestinal helminthic parasites
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close this folderAbsorptive capacity of adult Guatemalan rural males living under different conditions of sanitation
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close this folderStudies of energy intakes, expenditures, and requirements in China
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close this folderObligatory and integumental nitrogen losses - children
close this folderObligatory nitrogen losses and factorial calculations of protein requirements of pre-school children
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close this folderIntegumental nitrogen losses of pre-school children with different levels and sources of dietary protein intake
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View the documentThe protein requirements of normal infants at the age of about one year: maintenance nitrogen requirements and obligatory nitrogen losses
close this folderProtein requirements-children
close this folderProtein requirements of Filipino children 20 to 29 months old consuming local diets
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close this folderProtein requirements of pre-school children: milk and soybean protein isolate
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close this folderProtein absorption of pre-school children with intestinal helminth parasites
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close this folderUse of corn-bean mixtures to satisfy protein and energy requirements of preschool children
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close this folderProtein-energy requirements-children
close this folderCapacity of habitual Guatemalan diets to satisfy protein requirements of pre-school children with adequate dietary energy intakes
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close this folderEnergy requirements of pre-school children and effects of varying energy intakes on protein metabolism
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close this folderRecommended dietary energy intakes for the first six months of life
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close this folderProtein-energy requirements-adults
close this folderInterrelationships between effects of protein and energy intakes on nitrogen utilization in adult men
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close this folderRecommended dietary amounts of energy for pregnancy and lactation in the United Kingdom
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Conclusions and comments

1. Total energy intakes of both fully breast-fed and mixed-fed infants were considerably below the internationally recommended levels. They were, however, identical with energy intakes calculated from recent Swedish studies on breast-fed children and with those from the much earlier and classical investigations of Wallgren (Acta Paediat Scand., 32: 778, [1944-1945] ).

TABLE 1. Energy Intakes Adjusted for Body Weight in Breast-fed Babies (values are means + S.D.)

Mean age (months) No. Weight (kg) Energy intake/kg body wt. (kcals)
1.26 20 4.42 0.63 115 18
2.31 20 5.42 0.73 101 13
3.41 20 6.17 0.83 90 12
4.49 20 6.80 0.86 86 14
5.62 20 7.35 0.87 85 13
6.66 16 7.75 0.81 84 12



FIG. 2. Weight, Triceps Skin-fold, and Length of 20 Breast-fed Babies Compared with Tanner Whitehouse Standards. For weight and length, the standards represented are the 75th, 50th, and 25th centiles; for triceps skin-folds, the 50th, 25th, and 10th.

2. Initial growth was good, but after about three months the lower average intakes began to be associated with a general deviation away from the Tanner-Whitehouse growth standards. However, these standards are higher than other standards.

3. From the present data, it would seem reasonable to conclude that the present FAD/WHO recommended energy intakes for young infants are too high. Up to three months of age, the recent UK Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) values probably represent a more realistic estimate of the true needs of the average child. Whether even the DHSS recommendations are excessive from then onward depends on the interpretation placed on the anthropometric findings and the standards used.

4. A very careful and long-term evaluation would be required to decide whether deviations in growth of the magnitude found really did reflect processes disadvantageous to the child. The safer conclusion is the DHSS recommendation that dietary energy intake should remain at 100 kcal/kg after three months of age and throughout the rest of infancy.

Acknowledgements

We thank the mothers for their co-operation in this study, Mrs. J. Evans for the anthropometric measurements, Miss J.J. Whichelow for the recruitment of the mothers, and Dr. N.R.C. Roberton and the staff at the Cambridge Maternity Hospital. The study was financially supported by the Department of Health and Social Security.