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close this book Alcohol fuels: Options for Developing Countries
View the document Acknowledgments
View the document Preface
View the document Overview
View the document 1 Production and Use
View the document 2 Biomass Sources
View the document 3 Ethanol Production
View the document 4 Methanol Production
View the document 5 Social, Economic, and Environmental Implications
View the document 6 Conclusions and Recommendations
View the document Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation
View the document Board on Science and Technology for International Development


NOTICE: The project that is the subject of the report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the

committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures

approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences,

the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government' the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences.

This report has been prepared by an ad hoc advisory panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Office of International Affairs, National Research Council, for the Bureau for Science and Technology, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., under Contract No. AID-C-1433 and the Office of the Science Advisor, under Grant No. DAN-5538-G-SS-1023-00.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 82-062536

International Standard Book Number 0-309-03386-1

Copyright @) 1983 by the National Academy of Sciences

No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical' photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a photographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the United States Government.

Printed in the United States of America


ELMER L. GADEN, JR., Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA, Chairman

JAMES W. BLACK, Government of New South Wales (Australia), New York, New York, USA

VARY COATES, Dames and Moore, Washington, D.C., USA

ROGER PAUL HUMBERT, Consultant, Los Gatos, California, USA

JAMES L. KELLER, Union Oil Company of California, Brea, California, USA

HARINDER S. KOHLI, The World Bank, Washington, D.C., USA

EDWARD S. EIPINSKI, Battelle-Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio, USA

MARY MANDELS, US Army Natick Research and Development Command, Natick, Massachusetts, USA

JOSE MICCOLIS, Technikos Corporation, Washington, D.C., USA

PAUL R. MIDDAUGH, Northwest Pacific Energy Company, Inc., Pasco, Washington, USA

DANIEL . O'NEIL, European Research Institute of Ireland, Limerick, Ireland

BARRETT PULLMAN, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California, USA

THOMAS B. REED, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado, USA

LAWRENCE A. WILSON, Department of Crop Science, University of the West Indies, St.Augustine, Trinidad

VICTOR YANG, Promon Engenharia, S.A., Sao Paulo, Brazil


M. G. C. McDONALD DOW, Associate Director

E. GRIFFIN SHAY, Professional Associate

F. R. RUSKIN, Editor

HERTHA HANU, Administrative Secretary