"American Indians Today: Answers to your Questions" - Bureau of Indian Affairs booklet (heavy on the propaganda, but with some useful information and resources).
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                 United States Department of Interior
                       Bureau of Indian Affairs

                        AMERICAN INDIANS TODAY
                       ANSWERS TO YOUR QUESTIONS

                          1991 Third Edition

               United States Department of the Interior
                       BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS
                        WASHINGTON, D.C. 20245


     Every day the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) receives many 
     and varied inquiries about American Indians and Alaska 
     Natives through cards, letters, telephone calls or visits to 
     our offices. They come from students, teachers, historians, 
     researchers, librarians, other government agencies, Members 
     of Congress, the White House, game show hosts, and the 
     general public. Like you, they want answers to questions 
     about the lives of Indian people past and present.  

     Another large group of inquirers is the general and Indian 
     news media which maintain a lively interest in the work of 
     this agency and in the programs the federal government 
     carries out with and for Indian tribes. The BIA is often the 
     first and main resource when they are researching stories.  

     Responding to all of this is an enormous task. Many of your 
     most frequent questions, however, are similar and this 
     booklet was developed to respond to them. It also lists 
     other resources and an extensive bibliography to help with 
     your research in local libraries and elsewhere.  

     In seeking answers to your questions about Indians, you 
     should do so with a clear understanding that no two Indian 
     tribes are exactly alike. What is good for one tribe may not 
     be good for another; a policy or program that solves the 
     problems of one tribe, may not do so for another. This is 
     true because of differences in early culture, location, 
     resources or lack thereof, religion, education or tradition.  

     Consequently, there are no simple solutions to the many 
     challenges facing Indian tribes today. The BIA's role in 
     their lives has changed considerably from that of the past. 
     As it seeks to administer national policies affecting 
     tribes, the BIA actively seeks advice and participation by 
     tribal leaders in its decision-making.  

     The BIA also makes concerted efforts to provide tribes with 
     opportunities to be more self-governing and has moved, in 
     many ways, from daily involvement in their lives. As each 
     tribe's history, culture, and current situation is unique to 
     itself, finding the best way to help tribes achieve self-
     sufficiency without jeopardizing their interests is our 

     We hope the information in this booklet provides the answers 
     you seek or enables you to find them through other sources.  

     Thank you for your interest.  

     David J. Matheson
     Deputy Commissioner

                       BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS

     The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in the U.S. Department of 
     the Interior, is the federal agency with primary 
     responsibility for working with federally-recognized Indian 
     tribal governments and with Alaska Native village 
     communities. Other federal, state, county and local 
     governmental agencies may work with Indians or Alaska 
     Natives as members of ethnic groups or as U.S. citizens. The 
     BIA relates its work to federal tribal governments in what 
     is termed a "government-to-government" relationship.  

     It must be made clear at this point that BIA does not "run 
     Indian reservations." Elected tribal governments run Indian 
     reservations, working with the BIA whenever trust resources 
     or Bureau programs are involved.  

     Under a U.S. policy of Indian self-determination, the 
     Bureau's main goal is to support tribal efforts to govern 
     their own reservation communities by providing them with 
     technical assistance, as well as programs and services, 
     through 12 area offices and 109 agencies and special 

     A principal BIA responsibility is administering and managing 
     some 56.2 million acres of land held in trust by the United 
     States for Indians. Developing forest lands, leasing mineral 
     rights, directing agricultural programs and protecting water 
     and land rights are a part of this responsibility in 
     cooperation with the tribes, who have a greater decision-
     making role in these matters now than in the past.  

     Most Indian students (about 89 percent) attend public, 
     private or parochial schools. BIA augments these through 
     funding of 180 Bureau education facilities, many of which 
     are operated by tribes under contract with the Bureau. The 
     BIA also provides assistance for Indian college students; 
     vocational training; adult education; a solo parent program; 
     and a gifted and talented students program.  

     A part of the Bureau's work is also to assist tribes with 
     local governmental services such as road construction and 
     maintenance, social services, police protection, economic 
     development, and enhancement of governance and 
     administrative skills.  

     The BIA was established in 1824 in the War Department. It 
     became an agency of the Department of the Interior when the 
     Department was created in 1849. Until 1980, BIA was headed 
     by a Commissioner who by law was a presidential appointee 
     requiring confirmation by the U.S. Senate. The post remained 
     vacant until 1991 when the post of Deputy Commissioner was 
     filled by David J. Matheson, an enrolled member of the Coeur 
     d'Alene Tribe of Idaho, who is responsible for the day-to-
     day operations of the Bureau. His post as Deputy Commissioner 
     does not require Senate confirmation. From 1980 to 1991, the 
     BIA was administered by an Assistant Secretary - Indian 
     Affairs (or his deputy), a post that was created in 1977 by 
     the Interior Secretary. Five successive Indians have been 
     appointed by the President to the office. Since 1989, Eddie 
     F. Brown, an enrolled member of the Pasqua Yaqui Tribe of 
     Arizona, has held the post. He sets policy for the BIA. 

     About 87 percent of BIA employees are Indian through Indian 
     preference in hiring. Under federal law, a non-Indian cannot 
     be hired for a vacancy if a qualified Indian has applied for 
     the position. To qualify for preference status, a person 
     must be a member of a federally-recognized Indian tribe or 
     be of at least one-half Indian blood of tribes indigenous to 
     the U.S.  


     LEGISLATION -- Since the 1970's, two major laws have 
     restructured the BIA education program. In 1975, the Indian 
     Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (P.L. 93-
     638) authorized contracting with tribes to operate education 
     programs. The Educational Amendments Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-
     561) and technical amendments (P.L. 98-511, 99-89 and 100-
     297) mandated major changes in both Bureau-operated and 
     tribally contracted schools, including decision-making 
     powers for Indian school boards, local hiring of teachers 
     and staff, direct funding to schools, and increased 
     authority to the director of Indian Education Programs 
     within the Bureau.  

     FEDERAL SCHOOLS -- In 1990-91, the BIA is funding 180 
     education facilities including 48 day schools, 39 on-
     reservation boarding schools, five off-reservation boarding 
     schools and eight dormitories operated by the Bureau. 
     Additionally, under "638" contracting, tribes operate 62 day 
     schools, 11 on-reservation boarding schools, one off-
     reservation boarding school and six dormitories. The 
     dormitories enable Indian students to attend public schools.  

     INDIAN CHILDREN IN FEDERAL SCHOOLS -- Enrollment in schools 
     and dormitories funded by the BIA for 1991 is about 40,841 
     including 39,092 instructional and 1,749 dormitory students.  

     BIA provides funds to public school districts under the 
     Johnson-O'Malley Act of 1934 to meet the special educational 
     needs of about 225,871 eligible Indian students in public 

     INDIANS IN COLLEGE -- Approximately 15,000 Indian students 
     received scholarship grants from the BIA in the 1990-91 
     school year to enable them to attend colleges and 
     universities. About 432 students receiving BIA assistance 
     are in law school and other graduate programs. The total 
     number of Indian college students is not known, but is 
     estimated to be more than 70,000. Total appropriations 
     provided through the BIA for Indian higher education was 
     about $30.2 million in fiscal year 1991.  

     TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COLLEGES -- Currently, the BIA provides 
     grants for the operation of 22 tribally controlled community 
     colleges. The number of Indian students enrolled in these 
     colleges in school year 1990-91 was approximately 7,050 with 
     a total funding of $23.3 million.  

     BIA POST-SECONDARY SCHOOLS -- The BIA operates two post-
     secondary schools: Haskell Indian Junior College in 
     Lawrence, Kansas, with an enrollment of about 816 students, 
     and Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute at 
     Albuquerque, New Mexico, with about 427 students.  

     HANDICAPPED CHILDREN'S PROGRAM -- Under the Handicapped 
     Children's Act (P.L. 94-142), the Bureau provides financial 
     support for the educational costs of an average of 226 such 
     children annually in some 28 different facilities  

     programs in substance and alcohol abuse provide Bureau 
     schools with curriculum materials and technical assistance 
     in developing and implementing identification, assessment, 
     prevention, and crisis intervention programs through 
     referrals and added counselors at the schools.  


     The BIA Housing Program administers the Housing Improvement 
     Program (HIP), a grant program to which Indians may apply 
     who are unable to obtain housing assistance from other 
     sources, to repair and renovate existing housing. In some 
     special cases, HIP provides for the construction of new 
     homes. It also provides financial help to qualified Indians 
     for down payments in the purchase of new homes. The grants 
     are made only to those Indians who do not have the income to 
     qualify for loans from tribal, federal or other sources of 

     The 1989 BIA inventory of housing needs on reservations and 
     in Indian communities shows that of a total of 155,539 
     existing dwellings, 100,037 met standards and 55,502 needed 
     replacement (39,516 of which can be renovated). With the 
     numbers of dwellings needing total replacement (15,986) and 
     families needing housing (35,886), the BIA Housing Program 
     estimates that a total of 51,872 new homes are required. The 
     program budget for fiscal year 1991 is $20.1 million.  

     The program works cooperatively with the Indian Health 
     Service which provides water and sewage facilities for the 
     homes, and the Housing and Urban Development (HUD) program 
     which builds new homes. 


     On June 14, 1991, President George Bush issued an American 
     Indian policy statement which reaffirmed the government-to-
     government relationship between Indian tribes and the 
     Federal Government.  

     The President's policy builds upon the policy of self-
     determination first announced by President Nixon in 1970, 
     reaffirmed and expanded upon by the Reagan-Bush 
     Administration in 1983. President Bush's policy moves toward 
     a permanent relationship of understanding and trust, and 
     designates a senior staff member as his personal liaison 
     with all Indian tribes. President Bush's policy statement 
          Reaffirming The Government-to-Government Relationship 
          Between The Federal Government and Tribal Governments 

     On January 24, 1983, the Reagan-Bush Administration issued a 
     statement on Indian policy recognizing and reaffirming a 
     government-to-government relationship between Indian tribes 
     and the Federal Government. This relationship is the 
     cornerstone of the Bush-Quayle Administration's policy of 
     fostering tribal self-government and self-determination.  

     This government-to-government relationship is the result of 
     sovereign and independent tribal governments being 
     incorporated into the fabric of our Nation, of Indian tribes 
     becoming what our courts have come to refer to as quasi-
     sovereign domestic dependent nations. Over the years the 
     relationship has flourished, grown, and evolved into a 
     vibrant partnership in which over 500 tribal governments 
     stand shoulder to shoulder with the other governmental units 
     that form our Republic.  

     This is now a relationship in which tribal governments may 
     choose to assume the administration of numerous Federal 
     programs pursuant to the 1975 Indian Self-Determination 
     and Education Assistance Act.  

     This is a partnership in which an Office of Self-Governance 
     has been established in the Department of the Interior and 
     given the responsibility of working with tribes to craft 
     creative ways of transferring decision-making powers over 
     tribal government functions from the Department to tribal 

     An Office of American Indian Trust will be established in 
     the Department of the Interior and given the responsibility 
     of overseeing the trust responsibility of the Department and 
     of insuring that no Departmental action will be taken that 
     will adversely affect or destroy those physical assets that 
     the Federal Government holds in trust for the tribes.  

     I take pride in acknowledging and reaffirming the existence 
     and durability of our unique government-to-government 

     Within the White House I have designated a senior staff 
     member, my Director of Intergovernmental Affairs, as my 
     personal liaison with all Indian tribes. While it is not 
     possible for a President or his small staff to deal directly 
     with the multiplicity of issues and problems presented by 
     each of the 510 tribal entities in the Nation now recognized 
     by and dealing with the Department of the Interior, the 
     White House will continue to interact with Indian tribes on 
     an intergovernmental basis.  

     The concepts of forced termination and excessive dependency 
     on the Federal Government must now be relegated, once and 
     for all, to the history books. Today we move forward toward 
     a permanent relationship of understanding and trust, a 
     relationship in which the tribes of the nation sit in 
     positions of dependent sovereignty along with the other 
     governments that compose the family that is America.  


     Over the past decade, the annual budget for the BIA has 
     averaged approximately $1 billion. The fiscal year 1991 
     appropriation for the BIA is $1.5 billion for the principal 
     program categories of: Education, $554.5 million; Tribal 
     Services (including social services and law enforcement), 
     $338.9 million; Economic Development, $ 14.6 million; 
     Navajo-Hopi Settlement, $1.4 million; Natural Resources, 
     $139.7 million; Trust Responsibilities, $74.7 million; 
     Facilities Management, $94.2 million; General 
     Administration, $112.0 million; Construction, $167.6 
     million; Indian Loan Guaranty, $ 11.7 million; Miscellaneous 
     Payments to Indians, $56.1 million; and Navajo 
     Rehabilitation Trust Fund, $3.0 million.  

     Under the Indian self-determination policy, tribes may 
     operate their own reservation programs by contracting with 
     the BIA. In fiscal year 1990, tribal governments contracted 
     programs totalling $415 million, over 30 percent of the 
     total BIA budget.  

     Appropriations for other federal agencies with Indian 
     programs, for FY 1991, are: Indian Health Service, $1.4 
     billion; end administration for Native Americans, $33.3 
     million (both agencies of the Department of Health and Human 
     Services); and the Office of Indian Education in the U.S. 
     Department of Education, $75.3 million.  

     Other federal departments, such as Agriculture, Commerce, 
     and HUD, also receive funds specifically designated for 
     Indian programs. 


     According to U.S. Census Bureau figures, there were 
     1,959,234 American Indians and Alaska Natives living in the 
     United States in 1990 (1,878,285 American Indians, 57,152 
     Eskimos, and 23,797 Aleuts). This is a 37.9 percent increase 
     over the 1980 recorded total of 1,420,400. The increase is 
     attributed to improved census taking and more self-
     identification during the 1990 count. The BIA's 1990 
     estimate is that almost 950,000 individuals of this total 
     population live on or adjacent to federal Indian 
     reservations. This is the segment of the total U.S. Indian 
     and Alaska Native population served by the BIA through 
     formal, on-going relations.  


     The number of Indian land areas in the U.S. administered as 
     Federal Indian reservations (reservations, pueblos, 
     rancherias, communities, etc.) total 278. The largest is the 
     Navajo Reservation of some 16 million acres of land in 
     Arizona, New Mexico and Utah. Many of the smaller 
     reservations are less than 1,000 acres with the smallest 
     less than 100 acres. On each reservation, the local 
     governing authority is the tribal government. The states in 
     which the reservations are located have limited powers over 
     them, and only as provided by federal law. On some 
     reservations, however, a high percentage of the land is 
     owned and occupied by non-Indians. Some 140 reservations 
     have entirely tribally-owned land.  


     A total of 56.2 million acres of land are held in trust by 
     the United States for various Indian tribes and individuals. 
     Much of this is reservation land; however, not all 
     reservations land is trust land. On behalf of the United 
     States, the Secretary of the Interior serves as trustee for 
     such lands with many routine trustee responsibilities 
     delegated to BIA officials.  


     There are 510 federally recognized tribes in the United 
     States, including about 200 village groups in Alaska. 
     "Federally-recognized" means these tribes and groups have a 
     special, legal relationship to the U.S. government and its 
     agent, the BIA, depending upon the particular situation of 
     each tribe. 


     Members of federal tribes who do not reside on their 
     reservations have limited relations with the BIA, since BIA 
     programs are primarily administered for members of 
     federally-recognized tribes who live on or near 


     A number of Indian tribes and groups in the U.S. do not have 
     a federally-recognized status, although some are state-
     recognized. This means they have no relations with the BIA 
     or the programs it operates. A special program of the BIA, 
     however, works with those seeking federal recognition 
     status. Of 126 petitions for federal recognition received by 
     the BIA since 1978, eight have received acknowledgment of 
     tribal status and 12 have been denied. Twelve other groups 
     gained federal recognition outside the BIA process through 
     action by the U.S. Congress.  

                         INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE 

     The primary Federal health resource for American Indians and 
     Alaska Natives is the Indian Health Service (IHS), an agency 
     of the Public Health Service of the U.S. Department of 
     Health and Human Services. The IHS operates hospitals and 
     clinics on reservations and provides related health services 
     for Indian communities. Like the BIA, the IHS contracts with 
     tribes to operate some of its programs. Some of the 
     significant statistics related to the state of Indian health 
     in 1991 are as follows:  

     BIRTH RATE -- Birth rates were 28.0 births per 1,000 in 
     1986-88. The U.S. all races rate was 15.7 births per 1,000 
     in 1987.  

     INFANT DEATH RATE -- The infant death rate was 9.7 per 1,000 
     live births in 1986-88, while the U.S. all races was 10.1 
     per 1,000 births in 1987.  

     LIFE EXPECTANCY -- In 1979-81, life expectancy was 71.1 
     years (males, 67.1 years and females 75.1 years). These 
     figures are based on 1980 census information.  

     CAUSES OF DEATH -- Diseases of the heart and accidents 
     continue to be the two major causes of death among American 
     Indians and Alaska Natives. The 1988 age-adjusted death rate 
     for diseases of the heart was 138.1 per 100,000 of the 
     population and 166.3 per 100,000 for all U.S. races. In the 
     same period, the age-adjusted death rate from accidents was 
     80.8 percent per 100,000, including 44.7 related to motor 
     vehicle accidents and 36.1 from other accidents. The U.S. 
     all races 1988 age-adjusted rate was 35.0 per 100,000, 
     including 19.7 related to motor vehicle accidents and 15.3 
     related to other accidents.  

     SUICIDE RATE -- The age-adjusted suicide death rate for the 
     population has decreased 29 percent since its peak in 1975 
     (21.1 deaths per 100,000 population). The Indian rate for 
     1988 was 14.5 compared to the U.S. all races rate of 11.4.  

     HIV/AIDS -- The numbers of AIDS cases among American Indians 
     end Alaska Natives is, as yet, relatively low (236 in the 
     period 1982-1990). There are, however, no firm statistics on 
     the numbers of those who may be HIV-positive. The IHS is, 
     therefore, directing its attention to education/prevention, 
     surveillance, and treatment programs in cooperation with the 
     BIA in its school systems, with tribal leaders, and local 
     and state health departments. The Centers for Disease 
     Control (CDS) provides some funding support toward the total 
     fiscal year 1991 budget for this work of $3.1 million. 



     No single federal or tribal criteria establishes a person's 
     identity as an Indian. Government agencies use differing 
     criteria to determine who is an Indian eligible to 
     participate in their programs. Tribes also have varying 
     eligibility criteria for membership. To determine what the 
     criteria might be for agencies or tribes, you must contact 
     them directly.  

     For its purposes, the Bureau of the Census counts anyone an 
     Indian who declares himself or herself to be such.  

     To be eligible for Bureau of Indian Affairs services, an 
     Indian must (1) be a member of a tribe recognized by the 
     federal government and (2) must, for some purposes, be of 
     one-fourth or more Indian ancestry. By legislative and 
     administrative decision, the Aleuts, Eskimos and Indians of 
     Alaska are eligible for BIA services. Most of the BIA's 
     services and programs, however, are limited to Indians 
     living on or near federal reservations.  


     Originally, an Indian tribe was a body of people bound 
     together by blood ties who were socially, politically, and 
     religiously organized, who lived together in a defined 
     territory and who spoke a common language or dialect.  

     The establishment of the reservation system created some new 
     tribal groupings when two or three tribes were placed on one 
     reservation, or when members of one tribe were spread over 
     two or three reservations.  


     A tribe sets up its own membership criteria, although the 
     U.S. Congress can also establish tribal membership criteria. 
     Becoming a member of a particular tribe requires meeting its 
     membership rules, including adoption. Except for adoption, 
     the amount of blood quantum needed varies, with some tribes 
     requiring only a trace of Indian blood (of the tribe) while 
     others require as much as one-half.  


     In the U.S., there are only two kinds of reserved lands that 
     are well known -- military and Indian. An Indian reservation 
     is land a tribe reserved for itself when it relinquished its 
     other land areas to the U.S. through treaties. More 
     recently, Congressional acts, executive orders and 
     administrative acts have created reservations. Some 
     reservations, today, have non-Indian residents and land 


     No. Indians are free to move above like all other Americans.  


     No. At the end of the 15th century, more than 300 languages 
     were spoken by the native population of what is now the 
     United States. Some were linked by "linguistic stocks" which 
     meant that widely scattered tribal groups had some 
     similarities in their languages. Today, some 250 tribal 
     languages are still spoken, some by only a few individuals 
     and others by many. Most Indians now use English as their 
     main language for communicating with non-tribal members. For 
     many, it is a second language.  


     Indians have the same obligations for military service as 
     other U.S. citizens. They have fought in all American wars 
     since the Revolution. In the Civil War, they served on both 
     sides. Eli S. Parker, Seneca from New York, was at 
     Appamattox as aide to Gen. Ulyssess S. Grant when Lee 
     surrendered, and the unit of Confederate Brigadier General 
     Stand Watie, Cherokee, was the last to surrender. It was not 
     until World War I that Indians' demonstrated patriotism 
     (6,000 of the more than 8,000 who served were volunteers) 
     moved Congress to pass the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924. 
     In World War II, 25,000 Indian men and women, mainly 
     enlisted Army personnel, fought on all fronts in Europe and 
     Asia, winning (according to an incomplete count) 71 Air 
     Medals, 51 Silver Stars, 47 Bronze Stars, 34 Distinguished 
     Flying Crosses, and two Congressional Medals of Honor. The 
     most famous Indian exploit of World War II was the use by 
     Navajo Marines of their language as a battlefield code, the 
     only such code which the enemy could not break. In the 
     Korean conflict, there was one Indian Congressional Medal of 
     Honor winner. In the Vietnam War, 41,500 Indians served in 
     the military forces. In 1990, prior to Operation Desert 
     Storm, some 24,000 Indian men and women were in the 
     military. Approximately 3,000 served in the Persian Gulf 
     with three among those killed in action. One out of every 
     four Indian males is a military veteran and 45 to 47 percent 
     of tribal leaders today are military veterans.  


     No. The federal government is a trustee of Indian property, 
     it is not a guardian of individual Indians. The Secretary of 
     the Interior is authorized by law, in many instances, to 
     protect the interests of minors and incompetents, but this 
     protection does not confer a guardian-ward relationship.  


     No individual is automatically paid for being an Indian. The 
     federal government may pay a tribe or an individual in 
     compensation for damages for losses resulting from treaty 
     violations, for encroachments on Indian lands, or for other 
     past or present wrongs. A tribe or an individual may also 
     receive a government check for payment of income from their 
     lands and resources, but this is only because their resources 
     are held in trust by the Secretary of the Interior and 
     payment for their use has been collected from users by the 
     federal government in their behalf. Fees from oil or grazing 
     leases are an example.  


     Yes. Before the U.S. Congress extended American citizenship 
     in 1924 to all Indians born in the territorial limits of the 
     United States, citizenship had been conferred upon 
     approximately two-thirds of the Indian population through 
     treaty agreements, statutes, naturalization proceedings, and 
     by "service in the Armed Forces with an honorable discharge" 
     in World War I. Indians are also members of their respective 


     Indians have the same right to vote as other U.S. citizens. 
     In 1948, the Arizona supreme court declared unconstitutional 
     disenfranchising interpretations of the state constitution 
     and Indians were permitted to vote as in most other states. 
     A 1953 Utah state law stated that persons living on Indian 
     reservations were not residents of the state and could not 
     vote. That law was subsequently repealed. In 1954, Indians 
     in Maine who were not then federally recognized were given 
     the right to vote, and in 1962, New Mexico extended the 
     right to vote to Indians.  

     Indians also vote in state and local elections and in the 
     elections of the tribes of which they are members. Each 
     tribe, however, determines which of its members is eligible 
     to vote in its elections and qualifications to do so are not 
     related to the individual Indian's right to vote in 
     national, state or local (non-Indian) elections.  

     Indians have the same rights as other citizens to hold 
     public office, and Indian men and women have held elective 
     and appointive offices at all levels of government. Charles 
     Curtis, a Kaw Indian from Kansas, served as Vice President 
     of the United States under President Herbert Hoover.  

     Indians have been elected to the U.S. Congress from time to 
     time for more than 80 years. Ben Reifel, a Sioux Indian from 
     South Dakota, served five terms in the U.S. House of 
     Representatives. Ben Nighthorse Campbell, a member of the 
     Northern Cheyenne Tribe of Montana, was elected to the U.S. 
     Howe of Representatives in 1986 from the Third District of 
     Colorado, and is currently serving in his third term. He is 
     the only American Indian currently serving in Congress. 

     Indians also served and now hold office in a number of state 
     legislatures. Others currently hold or have held elected or 
     appointive positions in state judiciary systems and in 
     county and city governments including local school boards.  


     Yes. As U.S. citizens, Indians can buy and hold title to 
     land purchased with their own funds. Nearly all lands of 
     Indian tribes, however, are held in trust for them by the 
     United States and there is no general law that permits a 
     tribe to sell its land. Individual Indians also own trust 
     land which they can sell, but only upon the approval of the 
     Secretary of the Interior or his representative. If an 
     Indian wants to extinguish the trust title to his land and 
     hold title like any other citizen (with all the attendant 
     responsibilities such as paying taxes), he can do so if the 
     Secretary of the Interior or his authorized representative, 
     determines that he is able to manage his own affairs. This 
     is a protection for the individual.  


     Yes. They pay the same taxes as other citizens with the 
     following exceptions applying to those Indians living on 
     federal reservations: (1) federal income taxes are not 
     levied on income from trust lands held for them by the 
     United States; (2) state income taxes are not paid on income 
     earned on a federal reservation; (3) state sales taxes are 
     not paid on transactions made on a federal reservation, and 
     (4) local property taxes are not paid on reservation or 
     trust land.  


     Yes. As U.S. citizens, Indians are generally subject to 
     federal, state, and local laws. On federal reservations, 
     however, only federal and tribal laws apply to members of 
     the tribe unless the Congress provides otherwise. In federal 
     law, the Assimilative Crimes Act makes any violation of 
     state criminal law a federal offense on reservations.  

     Most tribes now maintain tribal court systems and facilities 
     to detain tribal members convicted of certain offenses 
     within the boundaries of the reservation. A recent U.S. 
     Supreme Court decision restricted the legal jurisdiction of 
     federal tribes on their reservations to members only, 
     meaning that an Indian tribe could not try in its tribal 
     court a member of another tribe even though that person 
     might be a resident on the reservation and have violated its 
     law. There currently are bills in the Congress that would 
     restore tribes' right to prosecute any Indian violating laws 
     on an Indian reservation.  


     Congress ended treaty-making with Indian tribes in 1871. 
     Since then, relations with Indian groups are by 
     congressional acts, executive orders, and executive 

     The treaties that were made often contain obsolete 
     commitments which have either been fulfilled or superseded 
     by congressional legislation. The provision of educational, 
     health, welfare, and other services by the government to 
     tribes often has extended beyond treaty requirements. A 
     number of large Indian groups have no treaties, yet share in 
     the many services for Indians provided by the federal 

     The specifics of particular treaties signed by government 
     negotiators with Indians are contained in one volume (Vol. 
     II) of the publication, "Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties," 
     compiled, annotated and edited by Charles Kappler. Published 
     by the Government Printing Office in 1904, it is now out of 
     print, but can be found in most large law libraries. More 
     recently, the treaty volume has been published privately 
     under the title, "Indian Treaties, 1778-1883."  

     Originals of all the treaties are maintained by the National 
     Archives and Records Service of the General Services 
     Administration. A duplicate of a treaty is available upon 
     request for a fee. The agency will also answer questions 
     about specific Indian treaties. Write to: Diplomatic Branch, 
     National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D.C. 


     Most tribal governments are organized democratically, that 
     is, with an elected leadership. The governing body is 
     generally referred to as a "council" and is comprised of 
     persons elected by vote of the eligible adult tribal 
     members. The presiding official is the "chairman," although 
     some tribes use other titles such as "principal chief," 
     "president" or "governor." An elected tribal council, 
     recognized as such by the Secretary of the Interior, has 
     authority to speak and act for the tribe and to represent it 
     in negotiations with federal, state, and local governments.  

     Tribal governments generally define conditions of 
     membership, regulate domestic relations of members, 
     prescribe rules of inheritance for reservation property not 
     in trust status, levy taxes, regulate property under tribal 
     jurisdiction, control conduct of members by tribal 
     ordinances, and administer justice.  

     Many tribes are organized under the Indian Reorganization 
     Act (IRA) of 1934, including a number of Alaska Native 
     villages, which adopted formal governing documents 
     (Constitutions) under the provisions of a 1936 amendment to 
     the IRA. The passage in 1971 of the Alaska Native Claims 
     Settlement Act, however, provided for the creation of 
     village and regional corporations under state law to manage 
     the money and lands granted by the Act. The Oklahoma Indian 
     Welfare Act of 1936 provided for the organization of Indian 
     tribes within the State of Oklahoma. Some tribes do not 
     operate under any of these acts, but are nevertheless 
     organized under documents approved by the Secretary of the 
     Interior. Some tribes continue their traditional forms of 

     Prior to reorganization, the tribes maintained their own, 
     often highly developed, systems of self-government. 


     Any special rights that Indian tribes or members of those 
     tribes have are generally based on treaties or other 
     agreements between the United States and tribes. The heavy 
     price Indians paid to retain certain "sovereign" rights was 
     to relinquish much of their land to the United States. The 
     inherent rights they did not relinquish are protected by 
     U.S. law. Among those may be hunting and fishing rights and 
     access to religious sites.  


     The first step in tracing Indian ancestry is basic 
     genealogical research if you do not already have specific 
     family information and documents that identify tribal ties. 
     Some information to obtain is: names of ancestors; dates of 
     birth, marriages and death; places where they lived; their 
     brothers and sisters, if any, and, most importantly, tribal 
     affiliations. Among family documents to check are bibles, 
     wills, and other such papers. The next step is to determine 
     whether any of your ancestors are on an official tribal roll 
     or census. For this there are several sources. Contact the 
     National Archives and Records Administration, Natural 
     Resources Branch, Civil Archives Division, 8th and 
     Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, D.C. 20408. Or you may 
     contact the tribal enrollment officer of the tribe of which 
     you think your ancestors may be members. Another source is 
     the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Branch of Tribal Enrollment, 
     1849 C St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20240. The key in 
     determining your Indian ancestry is identification of a 
     specific tribal affiliation.  

     Becoming a member of a tribe is determined by the enrollment 
     criteria of the tribe from which your Indian blood may be 
     derived, and this varies with each tribe. Generally, if your 
     linkage to an identified tribal member is far removed, you 
     would not qualify for membership, but it is the tribe, not 
     the BIA, which makes that determination.  


     When Indian tribes first encountered Europeans, they were 
     dealt with from strength of numbers and were treated as 
     sovereigns with whom treaties were made. When tribes gave up 
     lands to the U.S., they retained certain sovereignty over 
     the lands they kept. While such sovereignty is limited 
     today, it is nevertheless jealously guarded by the tribes 
     against encroachments by other sovereign entities such as 
     states. Tribes enjoy a direct government-to-government 
     relationship with the U.S. government wherein no decisions 
     about their lands and people are made without their consent.  


     Indian tribes that have a legal relationship to the U.S. 
     government through treaties, Acts of Congress, executive 
     orders, or other administrative actions are "recognized" by 
     the federal government as official entities and receive 
     services from federal agencies. Some tribes are state-
     recognized, but  do not necessarily receive services from 
     the state. Others have neither federal or state recognition 
     and may not seek such recognition. Any tribe or group is 
     eligible to seek federal recognition by a process 
     administered by a program of the Bureau of Indian Affairs or 
     through direct petition to the U.S. Congress. Only the 
     Congress has the power to terminate a tribe from federal 
     recognition. In that case, a tribe no longer has its lands 
     held in trust by the U.S. nor does it receive services from 
     the BIA.  


     No. Indians can and do live anywhere in the United States 
     that they wish. Many leave their home reservations for 
     educational and employment purposes. Over half of the total 
     U.S. Indian and Alaska Native population now lives away from 
     reservations. Most return home often to participate in 
     family and tribal life and sometimes to retire.  


     The term, "Native American," came into usage in the 1960s to 
     denote the groups served by the Bureau of Indian Affairs: 
     American Indians and Alaska Natives (Indians, Eskimos and 
     Aleuts of Alaska). Later the term also included Native 
     Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders in some federal programs. 
     It, therefore, came into disfavor among some Indian groups.  

     The Eskimos and Aleuts in Alaska are two culturally distinct 
     groups and are sensitive about being included under the 
     "Indian" designation. They prefer, "Alaska Native."  


     The Bureau provides some higher education scholarship 
     assistance for eligible members of federally-recognized 
     tribes. For information, contact the Indian Education 
     Program, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1849 C St. NW, 
     Washington, D.C. 20240. 


     The first and best local resource for finding information 
     about Indians is your library. Libraries have (1) reference 
     books that include Indian information, (2) books on Indian 
     tribes, people, or on various aspects of Indian life or 
     history, and (3) periodicals with articles about Indians. If 
     your library is a Federal Depository Library (there were 
     some 1,400 in 1988), materials published by federal 
     agencies, including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, may also 
     be available in the reference collections. Librarians are 
     professionals trained to help you find materials or obtain 
     them from other libraries on an inter-library loan basis. 
     You may also consider contacting one of the Indian 
     organizations listed on pages 35-36 of this booklet if you 
     have questions about areas of their expertise. The following 
     are other major resources:  

     Library, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1849 C St., NW, 
     Rm. 1041, Washington, DC 20240 (202) 208-5&15. The Interior 
     Library has a large collection of books on Indians available 
     to the public or through inter-library loan, as well as 
     research periodicals for current information about Indians.  

     Indian Arts and Crafts Board, U.S. Department of the 
     Interior, 1849 C St. NW, Rm. 4004-MIB, Washington, DC 20240 
     (202) 208-3773. The Board publishes information related to 
     contemporary Native American arts and crafts, including 
     directories of Native American sources for these products, 
     available upon request.  

     Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human 
     Services, Parklawn Building, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, 
     MD 20857 (301) 443-1397. The IHS has information on Indian 
     health matters, including programs supported by the federal 
     government, and statistics.  

     Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Racial 
     Statistics Branch, Population Division, Washington, DC 20233 
     (301) 763-2607. The Liaison with American Indians office 
     provides 1990 Census information including statistical 
     profiles of the American Indian, Eskimo and Aleut population 
     for the United States.  

     National Archives and Records Service, U.S. General Services 
     Administration, Civil Reference Branch, 7th St. and 
     Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC. 20480 (202) 523-3238. 
     The Archives assists scholarly research into the history of 
     the federal-Indian relationship and those concerned with the 
     legal aspects of Indian administration. Pertinent materials 
     are among the old records of the Department of War, the 
     Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the General Land Office. They 
     include papers related to Indian treaty negotiations; 
     annuity, per capita and other payment records; tribal census 
     rolls; records of Indian agents; and maps of Indian lands 
     and reservations. You may inquire to use these records or 
     obtain copies of specific segments for a small fee. 

     Smithsonian Institution, Public Affairs Office, Department 
     of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, 10th 
     Street and Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20560 (202) 
     357-1592. The Handbook Office is preparing a 20-volume 
     series on the history, culture and contemporary 
     circumstances of North American Indians. The series is 
     entitled, Handbook of North American Indians, of which nine 
     volumes have thus far been published.  Library of Congress, 
     General Reading Room Division, 10 First St., SE, Washington, 
     DC 20540 (202) 707-5522. Reference librarians will help you 
     use the general or special collections of the Library of 
     Congress. Its resources are collections of over 84 million 
     items -- books, maps, music, photographs, motion pictures, 
     prints, manuscripts -- some of which contain much material 
     for research on American Indians.  

     Newberry Library Center for the History of the American 
     Indian, 60 West Walton St., Chicago, IL 60610 (312) 943-
     9090. One of America's foremost research libraries, the 
     Newberry makes its resources available to academic and lay 
     scholars. The library has more than 100,000 volumes on 
     American Indian history.  

     National Indian Law Library, Native American Rights Fund, 
     1522 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80302 (303) 447-8760. A 
     clearinghouse for Indian law-related materials, the Library 
     contains 14,000 court proceedings in every major Indian case 
     since the 1950s and 4,000 non-court materials. It has a 
     government documents and tribal codes and constitutions 
     collection. A catalogue of holdings is available ($75) as 
     well as two supplements (1985, $ 10; 1989, $30). Copies of 
     materials under six pages are free. More than six cost 15 
     cents per page.  

     The National Native American Cooperative, PO Box 1000, San 
     Carlos, Arizona, 85550-0301 (602) 230-3399, periodically 
     publishes a directory that includes a calendar of American 
     Indian events and celebrations and information on arts and 
     crafts. Separate card sets are also available listing this 
     and other information. There is a fee for these 


     The BIA does not have photographs of Indians available to 
     the public. The following sources provide copies for a fee.  

     National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution, 
     Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560 (202) 357 - 
     1986, has a large collection of photographs dating back to 
     the early 1800s. Inquiries should specify names of 
     individuals, tribe name, historical events, etc. Researchers 
     with broad or numerous interests should visit the NAA which 
     has, in addition to photographs, manuscripts, field notes, 
     sound tapes, linguistic data, and other documents including 
     vocabularies of Indian and Inuit languages and drawings.  

     Photo Lab, Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian 
     Institution, 14th and Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 
     20560 (202) 357-1933, prints photographs upon request after 
     research has been completed at the Smithsonian. You need to 
     provide a negative number from source files  

     Still Pictures Branch, National Archives and Records 
     Service, Washington, DC 20408 (202) 501-5455, receives 
     photographs from government agencies, principally the BIA, 
     grouped by subject. Make inquiry as specific as possible, 
     including names, dates, places, etc.  

     Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, 
     Washington, DC 20540 (202) 707-6394, has available an 
     historic collection of prints and photographs of American 
     Indians. Go to the library to do your research (open Monday-
     Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.). The Library responds to a 
     limited amount of mail.  

     National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian 
     Institution, Photograph Department, 3735 Broadway, New York, 
     NY 10032, (212) 283-2420, has a large collection of objects 
     and photographs of Native Americans. Much of the Museum's 
     collection will be moved to Washington, D.C., when the 
     National Museum of the American Indian is built on the Mall 
     to house the the collections currently located in New York 


     Audio-visual materials are available from the following 

     Native American Public Broadcasting Consortium, PO Box 8311, 
     Lincoln, NB 68501 (402) 472-3522, maintains the Nation's 
     largest quality library of Native American video programs 
     for public television, instructional and information use. 
     Topics range from history, culture and education to economic 
     development and the arts. Programs are available for rent or 
     purchase. A free catalogue is available. 


     (This bibliography was prepared with the assistance of 
     Cesare Marino, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC) 


     Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1849-1967, Annual Reports to 
     the Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D.C. U.S. 
     Government Printing Office (Reprinted by AMS Press, New 
     York, 1976-1977).  

     Kvasnicka, Robert M., and Herman J. Viola, eds. 1979, The 
     Commissioners of Indian Affairs, 1824-1977. Lincoln, 
     Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.  

     Meriam, Lewis, et. al., 1928, The Problem of Indian 
     Administration. Report of a survey made at the request of 
     the Honorable Hubert Work, Secretary of the Interior, and 
     submitted to him, February 21, 1927. (Originally published 
     by the U.S. Government Printing Office). Baltimore, 
     Maryland: John Hopkins University Press.  

     Taylor, Theodore W., 1984, The Bureau of Indian Affairs. 
     Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.  


     Lovett, Vincent, et al., 1984, American Indians (U.S. Indian 
     Policy, Tribes and Reservations, BIA: Past and Present, 
     Economic Development) Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government 
     Printing Office.  

     Presidential Commission on Indian Reservation Economies, 
     1984, Report and Recommendations to the President of the 
     United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing 

     White, Robert H., 1991, Tribal Assets, The Rebirth of Native 
     America, 1990. New York: Henry Holt & Co.  


     Fuchs, Estelle, and Robert J. Havinghurst, 1972, To Live on 
     This Earth: American Indian Education. Garden City, New 
     York: Doubleday.  

     Indian Nations at Risk Task Force, 1991, Final Report to the 
     Secretary of Education. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of 

     National Advisory Council on Indian Education, U.S. 
     Department of Education, Annual Reports, 1973- . Washington, 
     D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.  

     Prucha, Francis Paul, 1979, The Churches and the Indian 
     Schools, Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.  

     Szasz, Margaret, 1975, Education and the American Indian: 
     the Road to Self-Determination, 1928-1973. Albuquerque, New 
     Mexico: University of New Mexico Press. 

     United States Congress, Senate Committee on Interior and 
     Insular Affairs, 1970, Comprehensive Indian Education Act. 
     Hearings, 92nd Congress, 2nd session, on S. 2724. 
     Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.  

     United States Congress, Senate Special Subcommittee on 
     Indian Education, 1969, Indian Education: A National 
     Tragedy, A National Challenge. 91st Congress, 1st Session. 
     Senate Report No. 91-501. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government 
     Printing Office.  


     Fleming, Paula R., and Judith Luskey, 1986, The North 
     American Indian in Photographs from 1850 to 1920. New York: 
     Harper & Row.  

     Hill, Edward E., 1974, The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-
     1880: Historical Sketches, New York, Clearwater Publishing 

     Hill, Edward E., comp., 1981, Guide to Records in the 
     National Archives of the United States Relating to American 
     Indians. Washington, D.C.: National Archives Trust Fund 
     Board, U.S. General Services Administration.  

     Hirschfelder, Arlene B., et al., 1983, Guide to Research on 
     North American Indians. Chicago: American Library 

     National Archives Trust Fund Board, 1984, American Indians: 
     A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm 
     Publications. Washington, D.C.: National Archives Trust Fund 
     Board, U.S. General Services Administration.  

     Prucha, Francis Paul, 1990, Atlas of American Indian 
     Affairs, Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.  

     U.S. Department of Commerce, 1974, Federal and State Indian 
     Reservations and Indian Trust Areas. Washington, D.C.: U.S. 
     Government Printing Office.  

     Waldman, Carl, 1985, Atlas of the North American Indians. 
     Facts on File Publications.  


     Dorris, Michael, 1989, The Broken Cord. New York: Harper & 

     Nabokov, Peter, 1981, Indian Running. Santa Barbara, 
     California: Capra Press.  

     Trends in Indian Health, 1991. Rockville, Maryland: U.S. 
     Department of Health and Human Services, Indian Health 

     Vogel, Virgil J., 1970, American Indian Medicine. Norman, 
     Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. (Reprint, in 
     paperback, 1973, New York: Ballantine Books).  


     Abernethy, Thomas Perkins, 1959, Western Lands and the 
     American Revolution. New York: Russell and Russell.  

     American Indian Policy Review Commission, 1977, Final 
     Report, Submitted to Congress May 17, 1977. Washington, 
     D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.  

     Deloria, Vine Jr., and Clifford M. Lytle, 1984, The Nations 
     Within: The Past and Future of American Indian Sovereignty. 
     New York: Pantheon Books.  

     Johanson, Bruce, E., 1982, Forgotten Founders: Benjamin 
     Franklin, The Iroquois and the Rationale for the American 
     Revolution. Ipswich, Massachusetts: Gambit.  

     Kelly, Lawrence C., 1983, The Assault on Assimilation: John 
     Collier and the origins of Indian Policy Reform. 
     Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press.  

     Philip, Kenneth R., 1977, John Collier's Crusade for Indian 
     Reform: 1920-1954. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.  

     Prucha, Francis P., 1984, The Great Father: The United 
     States and the American Indians. 2 vols. Lincoln, Nebraska: 
     University of Nebraska Press.  

     Prucha, Francis P., 1990, Documents of Unites States Indian 
     Policy. (2nd edition, expanded). Lincoln/London: University 
     of Nebraska Press.  

     Schaaf, Gregory, 1990, Wampum Belts and Peace Trees, George 
     Morgan, Native Americans and Revolutionary Diplomacy. 
     Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing.  

     Taylor, Theodore W., 1972, The States and Their Indian 
     Citizens, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, 
     Bureau of Indian Affairs.  

     Taylor, Theodore, 1983, American Indian Policy. Mt. Airy, 
     Maryland: Lomond Publications, Inc.  

     Tyler, S. Lyman, 1973, A History of Indian Policy. 
     Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of 
     Indian Affairs.  

     Washburn, Wilcomb E., 1973, The American Indian and the 
     U.S., A Documentary History. 4 vols. New York: Random House.  


     1982, Indian-White Relations in the United States: A 
     Bibliography of Works Published, 1975-1980. Lincoln, 
     Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. 

     Berkhofer, Robert F., Jr., 1978, The White Man's Indian: 
     Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present. 
     New York: Alfred A Knopf.  

     Deloria, Vine, Jr., 1974, Behind the Trail of Broken 
     Treaties, New York: Dell Publishing Company.  

     Hagan, William T., 1979, American Indians (Revised edition). 
     Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.  

     Haynie, Nancy A., comp., 1984, Native Americans and the 
     Military, Today and Yesterday. Fort McPherson, Georgia: U.S. 
     Army Forces Command Information Branch.  

     Josephy, Alvin M., Jr., 1973, The Indian Heritage of 
     America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.  

     Matthiessen, Peter, 1983, In the Spirit of Crazy Horse. New 
     York: Viking Press.  

     Prucha, Francis P., 1971, Indian Peace Medals in American 
     History (State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison). 
     Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.  

     Prucha, Francis P., 1977, A Bibliographical Guide to the 
     History of Indian-White Relations in the United States. 
     Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  

     Rosenstiel, Annette, 1983, Red and White: Indian Views of 
     the White Man, 1492-1982. New York: Universe Books.  

     Stedman, Raymond W., 1982, Shadows of the Indian: 
     Stereotypes in American Culture. Norman, Oklahoma: 
     University of Oklahoma Press.  

     Utley, Robert M., and Wilcomb E. Washburn, 1977, The 
     American Heritage History of the Indian Wars. New York: 
     American Heritage Publishing Company.  

     Washburn, Wilcomb E., 1974, The Indian in America (The New 
     American Nation Series). New York: Harper & Row.  

     Viola, Herman J., 1990, After Columbus, The Smithsonian 
     Chronicle of the North American Indians. Washington, D.C.: 
     Smithsonian Books.  

     Washburn, Wilcomb E., 1987, History of Indian-White 
     Relations. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 4, 
     William C. Sturtevant, gen. ed. Washington, D.C.: 
     Smithsonian Institution.  


     Kickingbird, Kirke, and Karen Ducheneaux, 1973, One Hundred 
     Million Acres (The social, historical and legal significance 
     of Indian land problems). New York: Macmillan Company.  

     O'Donnell, Janet, 1991, The Dispossession of the American 
     Indian, 1887-1934. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.  

     Ross, Norman A., comp., 1973, Index to Expert Testimony 
     Before the Indian Claims Commission: The Written Reports 
     (The Library of American Indian Affairs). New York: 
     Clearwater Publishing Company.  

     Sutton, Imre, 1975, Indian Land Tenure, Bibliographical 
     Essays and a Guide to the Literature. New York: Clearwater 
     Publishing Company.  

     Sutton, Imre, 1985, Irredeemable America: The Indians' 
     Estate and Land Claims. Albuquerque: University of New 
     Mexico Press.  

     United States Indian Claims Commission, 1980, Final Report, 
     1( 79. 96th Congress, 2nd Session, House Document No. 96-
     383. (Serial No. 13354). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government 
     Printing Office.  


     Campbell, Lyle, and Marianne Mithun, eds., 1979, The 
     Languages of Native America: Historical and Comparative 
     Assessment. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.  

     INDIAN LAW:  

     Brakel, Samuel J., 1978, American Indian Tribal Courts: The 
     Costs of Separate Justice. Chicago: American Bar Foundation.  

     Cohen, Felix S., 1942, Handbook of Federal Indian Law. 
     Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. (Reprinted: The 
     Michie Company, Law Publishers, Charlottsville, Virginia, 

     Deloria, Vine, Jr., and Clifford M. Lytle, 1983, American 
     Indians, American Justice. Austin, Texas: University of 
     Texas Press.  

     Peavar, Stephen, 1983, The Rights of Indians and Tribes 
     (ACLU Handbook). New York: Bantam Books.  

     Native American Rights Fund, 1985, Indian Cases: The 1984-
     1985 Supreme Court Term. The NARF Legal Review, Spring. 
     Boulder, Colorado.  

     U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1980, American Indian Civil 
     Rights Handbook, 2nd ea., Clearinghouse Publications, No. 
     35. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.  

     1981, Indian Tribes: A Continuing Quest for Survival. 
     Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.  


     Dockstader, Frederick J., 1977, Great North American 
     Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. New York: Van 
     Nostrand Reinhold Company.  

     Eastman, Charles A. (Ohiyesa), 1918, Indian Heroes and Great 
     Chieftains (Reprint, 1991. Lincoln, Nebraska: Bison Books, 
     University of Nebraska Press).  

     Neithammer, Carolyn, 1977, Daughters of the Earth: The Lives 
     and Legends of American Indian Women. New York: Macmillan. 


     Deloria, Vine, Jr., 1973, God is Red. New York: Grosset & 

     Huyltkranz, Ake, 1987, Native Religions of North America. 
     New York: Harper & Row.  

     Hurdy, John M., 1970, American Indian Religions. Los 
     Angeles: Sherbourne Press.  

     Native American Rights Fund, 1979, We Also Have a Religion: 
     The American Indian Religious Freedom Act and the Religious 
     Freedom Project of the Native American Rights Fund. 
     Announcements (Winter) 5(1). Boulder, Colorado.  

     United States Federal Agencies Task Force, 1979, American 
     Indian Religious Freedom Act Report (P.L. 95-341). Chairman, 
     Cecil D. Andrus, Secretary of the Interior, Washington. D.C.  

     Peterson, Scott, 1990, Native American Prophecies; Examining 
     the History, Wisdom and Startling Predictions of Visionary 
     Native Americans. New York: Paragon House.  


     Kappler, Charles J., comp., 1904-1941, Indian Affairs: Laws 
     and Treaties. 5 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government 
     Printing Office (Reprinted: AMS Press, New York, 1971).  


     Lopach, James J., Brown, Margery Hunter, and Clow, Richmond 
     L., 1990, Tribal Government Today, Politics on Montana 
     Indian Reservations. San Francisco, Boulder, London: 
     Westview Press.  

     O'Brien, Sharon, 1989, American Indian Tribal Governments. 
     Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.  

     Taylor, Graham D., 1980, The New Deal and American Indian 
     Tribalism. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.  


     Hodge, Frederick W., ea., 1907-1910, Handbook of American 
     Indians North of Mexico. 2 vols. Bureau of American 
     Ethnology Bulletin 30 (Reprinted 1971. New York: Rowman and 

     Sturtevant, William C., gen. ea., 1978, Handbook of North 
     American Indians. 20 vols. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 
     Institution. 1978 vol. 8, California; 1978 Vol. 15, 
     Northeast; 1979 Vol. 9, Southwest (Pueblos); 1981 Vol 6, 
     Subarctic; 1983 Vol. 10, Southwest (Navajo, Apache, etc.); 
     1984 Vol. 5, Arctic; 1986 Vol. 11, Great Basin; 1989 Vol. 4, 
     History of Indian-White Relations; 1990 Vol. 7, Northwest 
     Coast; (1992 Vol. 13, Plains).  

     Swanton, John R., 1952, The Indian Tribes of North America. 
     Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145, Washington, D.C. 


     Correspondence for area offices should be addressed to: Area 
     Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs (followed by the address 
     listed below):  

     (Nebraska, North Dakota and   (Eastern Oklahoma)                         
     South Dakota)                 Old Federal Building                       
     115 4th Avenue, S.E.,         5th and West Okmulgee Streets              
     Aberdeen, SD 57401-4382       Muskogee, OK 74401-4898                    
     (605) 226-7343                (918) 687-2296                             
     (Colorado and New Mexico)     (Navajo Reservation only, Arizona,         
     615 First Street, N.W.        Utah, and New Mexico)                      
     Albuquerque, NM 87125-6567    PO Box M, Box 1060                         
     (505) 766-3171                Gallup, Nm 87305-1060                      
                                   (505) 863-9501                             
     (Kansas and Western                                                      
     Oklahoma)                     (Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and Idaho)         
     WCD Office Complex            #1 North First Street                      
     PO Box 368                    PO Box 10                                  
     Anadarko, OK 73005-0368       Phoenix, AZ 85001-0010                     
     (405) 247-6673                (602) 379-6600                             
     (Montana and Wyoming)         (Oregon, Washington, and Idaho)            
     316 North 26th Street         911 NE 11th Avenue                         
     Billings, MT 59101-1397       Portland, OR 97232-4169                    
     (406) 657-6315                (503) 231-6702                             
     (New York, Maine, Louisiana,  (California)                               
     Florida, North Carolina       Federal Office Building                    
     Mississippi, Connecticut and  2800 Cottage Way                           
     Rhode Island)                 Sacramento, CA 95825-1884                  
     3701 North Fairfax Drive,     (916) 978-4691                             
     Suite 260                                                                
     Arlington, VA 22203           (BIA Headquarters)                         
     (703) 235-2571                Bureau of Indian Affairs                   
                                   1849 C Street, N.W.                        
     (Alaska)                      Washington, DC 20240                       
     Federal Building              (202) 208-3711                             
     PO Box 3-8000                                                            
     Juneau, AK 99802-1219                                                    
     (907) 586-7177                                                           
     (Minnesota, Iowa, Michigan                                               
     and Wisconsin)            
     331 Second Avenue South                  
     Minneapolis, MN 55401-2241               
     (612) 373-1000                           

       (This is a partial list of national Indian organizations)

     American Indian Graduate Center    National Congress of American      
     4520 Montgomery Blvd., N.E.,       Indians                            
     Suite 1-B                          900 Pennsylvania Ave., SE          
     Albuquerque, NM 87109              Washington, DC 20003               
     (505) 881-4548                     (202) 546-9404                     
     American Indian Health Care        National Indian Council on Aging   
     Association                        City Center, Suite 510W            
     245 East 6th Street, Suite 815     6400 Uptown Blvd., NE              
     St. Paul, MN 55101                 Albuquerque, NM 87110              
     (612) 293-0233                     (505) 888-3276                     
     American Indian Science/           National Indian Education          
     Engineering Society                Association                        
     1085 14th Street, Suite 1506       1819 H St., NW, Suite j800         
     Boulder, CO 80302                  Washington, DC 20006               
     (303) 492-8658                     (202) 835-3001                     
     Association of American Indian     National Indian Gaming             
     & Alaska Native Social             Association                        
     Workers, Inc.                      1901 North Ft. Myers Dr.,          
     410 NW 18th Street, No. 101        Suite 1200                         
     Portland, OR 97209                 Rossyln, VA 22209                  
     (503) 221-4123                     (703) 841-0626                     
     Association of American Indian     Native American Finance Officers   
     Physicians                         Association                        
     10015 S. Pennsylvania, Bldg. D     c/o Navajo Tribal Utility          
     Oklahoma City, OK 73159            Authority                          
     (405) 692-1202                     PO Box 170                         
                                        Fort Defiance, AZ 86504            
     Council of Energy Resource Tribes  (602) 729-6218                     
     1999 Broadway, Suite 2600                                             
     Denver, CO 80202                   Native American Journalists        
     (303) 832-6600                     Association                        
                                        University of Colorado Campus      
     Intertribal Agricultural Council   Box 287                            
     Transwestern Plaza #2              Boulder, CO 80309                  
     490 North 31st Street, Suite 306   (303) 492-7379                     
     Billings, MT 59101                                                    
     (406) 259.3525                     Native American Rights Fund        
                                        1506 Broadway                      
     Intertribal Timber Council         Boulder, CO 80302                  
     PO Box C                           (303) 447-8760                     
     Warm Springs, OR 97761                                                
     (503) 553-1161                     United National Indian Tribal      
     National American Indian Housing   PO Box 25042                       
     Council                            Oklahoma City, OK 73125            
     122 C Street, N.W., Suite 280      (404) 424-3010                     
     Washington, DC 20001                                                  
     (202) 783-2667                                                        
     National Center for American                                          
     Indian Enterprise Development                                         
     953 East Juanita                                                      
     Mesa, AZ 85204                   
     (602) 831-7524                   

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