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close this bookBasic Science and Health Education for Primary Schools Uganda (UNICEF, 1992, 162 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentForeword
View the documentLinking Volume 1 and 2 of Basic Science and Health Education Teacher's Guide
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction to Book
View the documentCHAPTER 1. My Health and Other People's
View the documentCHAPTER 2. Caring for Our Bodies
View the documentCHAPTER 3. Causes of Accidents
View the documentCHAPTER 4. Names and Sources of Food
View the documentCHAPTER 5. The Importance of Immunisation
View the documentCHAPTER 6. Cleaning Things We Use
View the documentCHAPTER 7. Family Relationships and Interactions
View the documentCHAPTER 8. The Six Immunisable Diseases
View the documentCHAPTER 9. Food Hygiene
View the documentCHAPTER 10. Helping Others to Keep Healthy
View the documentCHAPTER 11. Worms, Diarrhoea and Dehydration
View the documentCHAPTER 12. Safety and Accident Prevention
View the documentCHAPTER 13. Germs and Prevention of Disease
View the documentCHAPTER 14. Working together for Good Health
View the documentCHAPTER 15. Topic: Keeping Clean
View the documentCHAPTER 16. Malaria, Trachoma and Sleeping Sickness
View the documentCHAPTER 17. First Aid for Common Accidents
View the documentCHAPTER 18. Food Preservation and Contamination
View the documentCHAPTER 19. Injuries and Their Care
View the documentCHAPTER 20. Digestive System
View the documentCHAPTER 21. Nutrition, Health and Disease
View the documentCHAPTER 22. Worms

CHAPTER 17. First Aid for Common Accidents



By the end of this topic pupils should be able to:

1. Explain what First Aid is.

2. Describe causes of and prevention for accidents at home, on the way to school, at school and at the well.

3. Demonstrate First Aid for common accidents.

4. Locate the aid post centres in their local areas.

Behavioural Changes:

Pupils should:

1. Be able to avoid accidents, bites and stings at home, on the way to or from school, at school and at the well.

2. Be able to administer simple First Aid.


a) Accidents:

What is meant by an accident?
Common accidents in my home, in my school and in my community.
How to prevent the most common accidents.

b) First Aid:

What is meant by first aid?
First Aid for most common accidents, identification, demonstration.

c) Resource person from First Aid experts to demonstrate and talk to the children.

Main Ideas:

1. First Aid is the first help given to a person who is injured before taking him/her to a Health Centre or Hospital.

2. Sprains, cuts, nose bleeding and poisoning are some of the injuries resulting from accidents.

3. Snake bites, drowning are common accidents at the well and in the bush.

4. All acccidents can be prevented.

5. First Aid can help to prevent more injury and save life.

Notes for the Teacher:

Revise Material in Chapter 3 and Chapter 12.





1. Falling into fireplace or stove


Keep away from fires.

2. Spilling hot liquids and food


Keep children away.

3. Touching electric wires

Shock, breathing stops, heart stops (even death)

Do not touch electric sockets, wires, plugs switches especially when you are wet

4. Touching sharp instruments


Clear broken bottles and sharp instruments away.

5. Swallowing poison

Severe sickness, internall injury or even death

Keep medicines, kerosene, rat poisons and agrochemicals away from children.

6. Falling from trees

Broken bones and cuts

Keep away from climbing trees.

7. Bites from dogs, cats, Rabies/septic cut cats, etc.

Beware of roaming dogs

8. Snake bites

Poisons system

Clear long bushes

9. Stings

Painful swelling

Do not play about with stinging insects


10. Motor vehicles

Broken bones, death

Look before crossing the road. Play away from the road.

11. From bicycles

Cuts, broken bones

Ride a bicycle safely. Keep brakes safe


12. Falling in


Play away from wells and ponds. Take care when drawing water.


First Aid is the first help given to a person after an accident. It can save life, prevent the injury from getting worse and to help bring about recovery. It is necessary to know how to apply First Aid.


1. Wash your hands very well with soap and water (hands have germs which could infect the cut).

2. Wash the wound well with soap and clean water.

3. Cover the wound with clean cloth or bandage.

Go to the Aid Post or Clinic if the wound is deep.

4. Do not put animal faeces or mud on wound. This can cause very dangerous infection such as tetanus.

How to Control Bleeding from a wound or a deep cut:

1. Raise the injured part.

2. Press the wound with a clean cloth or your hand if there is no cloth.

Keep pressing until the bleeding stops. This may take 15 minutes or more.

3. Tie the pad with a firm cloth bandage. If bleeding continues put more pads on top. Keep Pressing.


4. If bleeding continues Put more pads on top. Keep Pressing.

5. Take person to Aid Post quickly.

How to Stop Nose Bleeding:

1. Sit down quietly.

Do not lie down or put head back.

2. Put head slightly forward.

3. Breathe through the mouth.

4. Pinch the soft part of the nose firmly for 10 minutes.

If bleeding continues take the person to the health centre.


People especially children poison themselves by eating or drinking wrong things or by taking too much medicine or tablets.

Medicines. Weed killer Methylated spirit.

Some plants and berries are poisonous

Acids in batteries, Caustic soda

Make the person vomit.

Do this by putting your finger in their throat, or by making them drink water with soap or salt. Take to the health centre immediately.

Kerosene or petrol

Do not make the person vomit.

Give the person milk or water to drink in order to dilute the poison in the stomack. Take to the health centre immediately.

Four Handed Seat.

How to carry a person using a four-handed seat.


Some Activities for Pupils:

1. Refer back to chapter 3 and 12.

2. Children should discuss and keep a record of accidents that happen at home, school, in the neighbourhood and on the way to or from school.

3. Discuss with class what accidents may happen anywhere at home, at school and in the bush. Divide the class into groups. Have each group brainstorm e.g. common accidents at home - one list and how to prevent them - another list. Then compile a class table of accidents like the one on page 17.3.

4. Demonstrate possible ways of preventing various accidents through songs, role play, etc.

5. Discuss picture stories and formulate possible school rules with the children.

6. Let children have the opportunity to practise and demonstrate effective ways of preventing various accidents and how to administer First Aid properly.

7. Get a collection of dead insects and let the children identify them under these headings.

Name Insects that:



Sting and Bite

Do no harm


Manilla papers.


1. Get children to continue collecting information about accidents they have seen at home or in the community. Let the children draw pictures to illustrate or record the accidents. Put up the children's work in the information corner.

2. Give a test to children to demonstrate how to cross a road safely.


1. Help children to report accidents in their home and community, keep a record and observe if they are increasing or reducing.

2. Observe if rules for prevention of common accidents are being followed e.g. in the home.

3. Keep a monthly calendar of accidents in classroom/school etc.

4. Keep a frieze of accidents.

5. Time line on accidents.


(What have you learnt from this chapter?).

Complete the table below.

Fill in all boxes.





Falling into fire place.

Spilling hot liquids and foods.

Touching electric wires.

Touching sharp instruments

Nose bleed

Swallowing Medicines, weed killer, methylated spirit, Plants and berries.

Swallowing Kerosene, petrol.

Vehicle accidents.

Bites from dogs/cats.